Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Language and reason as ways of knowing Essay

Knowledge is also said as ‘ways of knowing’. It means ‘information and skills acquired through experience and education’. The acquisition of knowledge is done by three main factors; perception, language and reason. In this essay we sought to see the strengths and limitations of those learning approaches. Let’s take an example, how do we know that in a bottle, labeled crystal, there is water? We would use this example to explore the three cases. Perception is the way of taking messages and processing it by the brain to obtain meaningful information. Using the example above, we would do anything possible to conclude that what we are consuming from the bottle is water. That is we would observe, smell, taste, etc. We can see that we use our senses to identify the substance. We would observe the bottle, its labeling (name, ingredients etc.), colour of the substance and advertisement on the substance; we would smell the substance and even taste it (this would be last because we fear it might be harmful). All this shows that using our senses, we can identify objects and moving organism; this is the major strength of perception (immense knowledge is gained). Another point would be upon losing one of the senses; we are able to intensify the others, which help us even more in detection but surplus always comes with its difficulties. Subliminal perception is the way trying to identify objects with the memory only, for example a patient may not remember someone’s name but seems to know that person, and thus that patient tries to associate a name that goes well with that person that he/she declares to be unidentifiable. The problem is that even with our senses, we are limited in perception and it’s very frustrating to know how little we know. Sometimes our senses may deceive us, we may see the substance transparent but it is not necessarily water but another liquid. We can have perceptual illusions where we believe an object to have a specific shape but actually differs from what we have thought of. We may also have hallucination, we may feel, see, hear, taste and smell something when there is really nothing of such kind. We also tend to conclude on the very first bit of information received as we have been in such situation before (experience). Language is a method of communication which involves a sender, a message and a receiver to express thoughts. It was developed by humans and when using it, the rules were grammar and the symbols were words. The advantage of this method of learning is that it’s very simple (user-friendly) to use and every person in the world uses it. So communication is easy, thus enriching the ability to acquire knowledge. The greatest advantage is that there are many ways to communicate the thought, therefore enabling people to understand in a way or other. Using the example above, we can give important information, express what we feel and enquire about the substance in the bottle and also in different ways so that all the people involved can understand. There are also seven functions of language, which guides us to where each piece of information acquired can be classified. Despite language having a strong face of learning, it still has its disadvantages. The example above, the bottle of supposedly water, we have used our senses to identify it but without language it is impossible to give the facts, views etc correctly and even harder to communicate the information in different ways; some people uses too many words to explain only a word(can be a different language). Also different people have different views and not all will agree on what one has said about the substance. Reason is a way to justify what we have acquired as knowledge based on previous experiences. If we cannot do so, therefore we have not gained any knowledge. Taking the above example again, we say if that substance is water because it’s tasteless; we say so because we have heard, read and experimented on water. The strength of reasoning would be the rationality and logic arguments. Rationality is what allows us to say things that do make sense, we will not say that the substance in the bottle is water because of the shape of the bottle; it does not make sense. The rationality of a statement shows how the processing of all the information acquired is done and says whether it’s â€Å"good† or not (there is really a bad reason as long as a person can justify it). Being logical depends on the argument put forward as example given above. To be logical, the deductive argument must be correct and validate the argument; this differentiates between a â€Å"good† reasoning and â€Å"bad† reasoning, using above example, 1) all liquid that is pH 7 is water and the substance in the bottle is of pH 7, thus the substance in the bottle is water (this a valid deductive argument) . But sometime the arguments may be valid but does not sound, all substances that are colourless are harmless and the substance in the bottle is colourless, therefore it’s harmless (concentrated hydrochloric acid is also colourless but is very harmful).  To conclude knowledge gained through perception, language and reason is a great advantage to us, human beings but often can be deceptive and invalid. We should be more careful when taking in information, processing, expressing and justifying it. Here again we see that they are all linked!

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Sex Slaves in Nepal

Illuminating the World of Modern-day Slavery Speech by Lisa Kristine Speech Review by Kitty XUE Writing ? Lisa Kristen’s speech astonished the audience by simply presenting lives of slaves all over the world, and it is undoubtedly a successful one: her voice low and grave, full of sympathy and grief; her photos soundless yet visually and emotionally powerful.Perhaps because Kristen has seen all these slaves with her own eyes, she talks in a way that makes people feel that these stories are no longer lives of mere strangers in some remote country, but lives of someone that the audience know of—lives of ordinary people, who should have had a peaceful life. Her speech leaves people ashamed of their ignorance about the seriousness of the existing slavery in the modern world. Among various groups of slaves witnessed by Lisa Kristen were sex slaves in Nepal. The story of a sex slave in Nepal usually starts with poverty.In a country where half of the population is unemployed, young girls and their family members are easily lured by the job promises made by the so-called â€Å"job hunters†. Poor young girls follow the â€Å"job hunters† in the hope of getting a well-paid job, and a decent life in big cities like Kathmandu. Very often, however, they end up in a filthy hell known as â€Å"the cabin restaurant†. There, they are trafficked as sex slaves. Curtains are drawn to provide privacy for each room in the restaurant, or to be more precise, to provide privacy for the customers’ sexual harassments.The girls are expected to serve food and drinks to these rooms, but more importantly, to satisfy the male customers’ demands so that the sale can boost. Eventually, the girls will have to, willing or not, start prostitute themselves to entertain the money payers (Mavrich, â€Å"City in Focus: Kathmandu, Nepal†). Girls that refuse to comply are often physically intimidated by the cabin owner; some are said to have been h it by wires, rods and hot spoons (Ruffins, â€Å"Rescuing Girls from Slavery†); others are threatened with defamation, blackmailing and police harassment (Regmi, â€Å"Plight of Cabin Keepers†).Some girls who had been rescued revealed that they had to â€Å"serve† twenty to twenty-five men a day (Trenwith, â€Å"The appalling side of Nepal sparks a woman's crusade†). People are certainly moved and re-educated when they hear about the life stories of the slaves, for it hurts to see and hear about those coarse hands, dust-covered faces and vacant looks. But what about afterwards? Will people still care, or will they go back to their comfortable home and gradually forget about the shock they once experienced during the speech because they have their own family and jobs to worry about?Or to think even further, when few people will be affected by slavery, should this be a world concern? The answer would be yes. This has nothing to do with personal interests, o r the defense of modernism, not even the development of the society. It’s all about humanity—the reason why people call themselves human beings. When colonialism was replaced by democracy, we call it progress, for the meaning of freedom, equality and humanity was realized and therefore fulfilled.Now the same realization is needed to fulfill them, so that the human race progresses rather than goes backwards. Few people are powerful enough to change slavery directly. However, as long as the seriousness of modern slavery is kept in mind and spread the information, just as Lisa Kristine did with her camera and microphone, attention will be aroused, the â€Å"evil side† will be pressured, and those with the power to change the situation directly will be pushed. Works Cited Mavrich, Bret. â€Å"City in Focus: Kathmandu, Nepal. † Exodus Cry. om. Exodus Cry, 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012 ;http://exoduscry. com/prayer/city-in-focus/kathmandu-nepal/; Regmi, Shibesh Chand ra. â€Å"Plight of Cabin Keepers. † ActionAid Nepal (2004). Childtrafficking. com Digital Library, Dec. 2004. Web. 18 Oct. 2012 ; http://www. childtrafficking. com/Docs/action_aid_2004_plight_of_cabin_keepers_15. pdf; Ruffins, Ebonne. â€Å"Rescuing Girls from Slavery. † CNN Heroes. CNN, 30 April. 2010. Web. 14 Oct. 2012 ;http://edition. cnn. com/2010/LIVING/04/29/cnnheroes. koirala. nepal/index. html;

Poetry from Other Cultures Essay

Poets who were born in Britain don’t usually write about slavery or how important water is to them. Many poets who are not originally into a traditional English culture use English in many different ways. Night of the scorpion, Limbo and Sacrifice all seem like they are poems that have been written to represent beliefs or a way of life. They have all got rhythms and beats and some even use nursery rhymes or chants as a basis for the poem. Language is extremely important to some people especially poets. Sometimes you can see by looking at a poem that it is not written in Standard English. At the beginning of Night of The Scorpion, a child is talking about how it remembers the night when its mother was stung by a scorpion. The child mentions â€Å"Ten hours of steady rain has driven him to crawl beneath a sack of rice†. Here, the child is describing the scorpion and the reason for its arrival. The child points out that the scorpion â€Å"parted with its poison† which literally means that the scorpion has stung someone. Throughout the poem, the scorpion is described as an evil being; â€Å"The flask of diabolic tail in the dark room† shows this. When the mother was stung, the villagers are described as â€Å"swarming flies†. This may mean they were running to help the mother or running away from the scorpion. The villagers chant the name of god to the mother, chanting the name of god in some cultures, is said to bring luck or hope to the person they are chanting for. In the poem it also states that the villagers used torches and lanterns to try and find the scorpion. As the villagers moved around with the torches and lanterns, the scorpion left shadows on the â€Å"mud baked walls†. The villagers could not find the scorpion so they started to make a â€Å"clicking† noise to try and draw the scorpion towards them. In one part of the poem, it mentions that the scorpion was controlling the poison that was inside the child’s mother. â€Å"With every movement the scorpion made, his poison moved around the mothers blood†. The villagers seem to believe that the scorpion controls the poison that is inside the mother so they think that if they capture the scorpion, the poison inside the mother will also stop moving. They state that they want to stop the scorpion on line 18, â€Å"May he sit still†. After line 18, a series of sentences are started with the word â€Å"may†. In Standard English, this word usually introduces a polite request. The villagers all sat round whilst the mother laid there. It is described that there is a look of understanding on all of the people’s faces, which shows that they are supporting the mother, hoping she will be fine. In some cultures it is believed that if you catch the scorpion that has poisoned someone, the victim will recover. This may be why the villagers were so keen to capture the creature. The poet then describes how everyone is trying to help the child’s mother recover. â€Å"My father, sceptic, rationalist, trying every curse and blessing, powder, mixture, herb and hybrid. He even poured a little paraffin wax upon the bitten toe and put a match to it†. â€Å"I watched the flame feeding on my mother† this is one of the most effective quotes in this poem as it’s dramatic and metaphorical. Again, the poet describes how people are trying to help the child’s mother by writing; â€Å"I watched a holy man perform his rites to tame the poison with an incantation†. The p poet gives the effect that the poison has been inside the mother for a long time by saying; â€Å"After twenty hours, it lost its sting† The last three lines of the poem have had a large amount of thought go into them, as it’s unusual to normally end a poem like this. The poem Limbo, tells the story of slavery in a rhyming, rhythmic dance. It is ambiguous and complex. There are two main narratives running in parallel; the actions of the dance and the history of a people – which is being enacted. Going down under the limbo stick is likened to the slaves going down into the hold of the ship, which carries them into slavery. In Roman Catholic tradition, Limbo is a place to which the souls of people go, if they are not good enough for heaven but not bad enough for hell, between this is Limbo. It has come to mean an unpleasant place or a state of mind or body from which it is difficult to escape. The story of slavery told in the poem is very easy to follow, yet full of detail and action. The poem has a very strong beat, suggesting the dance it describes. The rest of the poem tells a story enacted in a dance. These lines are greatly rhythmic and almost every syllable is stressed, until the very last line, where the rhythm is broken, suggesting the finish of the dance and the end of the narrative. This poem is suited to a dramatic performance – there is the dancing under the limbo stick and the acting out the voyage into slavery. The poem can be chanted or sung with a rhythmic beat to give the best effect. The poem refers to a â€Å"drummer† which may be suitable. The poem is laid out on the page in a very peculiar fashion; this is related to the poem being chant like. Parts of the poem are echoed or at least rhyming in a repetitive way to suggest that this may not be any song or dance, but one of an â€Å"African† like culture. From the start of the poem, it seems pessimistic, but as you read on towards the end of the poem, it gradually stats to change into an optimistic look onto what will happen. â€Å"The music is saving me† could mean that the songs of their cultures were what gave them hope or the fact that the drummer was beating a rhythmic beat was what got them to carry on. The first line of sacrifice is an unusual line to start with because describing a goat having a knife dragged across its neck isn’t the sort of image you would want to convey for the opening sentence. The person’s point of view throughout the poem seemed to switch between two characters, a young boy and a goat being sacrificed. â€Å"Two spadefuls of dirt will cover me up forever† & â€Å"I can feel its point on my throat†. Many cultures bless their house or have some kind of ceremony once the house is built. Also, there are still some cultures today that sacrifice animals to their â€Å"gods†. â€Å"We stand in a tight circle around the animal to be sacrificed† this short sentence is a great example of this. It seems that the child in question seems to dislike the idea of animals being sacrificed. â€Å"The heat and the smell of the blood make me dizzy†. Again, there is a whole paragraph describing just how the animal in question is sacrificed. The writer of the poem has made a strange choice by putting both children and the theme of sacrificing together, as usually a poet would not normally do this. â€Å"The children are fascinated by the tableau†. Here, a drama convention is used. A tableau is a still image that can be used at the beginning, during or at the end of a piece of drama. Again, the idea of ceremonies are used; â€Å"A white bearded man chants something holy†. â€Å"The cameras click.† This short sentence sounds wrong when put into context with the theme of the poem. The idea of people taking pictures of an animal that has just been sacrificed is disgusting. The ending of the poem is unusual because it seems that it is from the boy’s point of view because it describes the house as an unnecessary killing. â€Å"We are not laying the foundations of a house but another dachau.† A Dachau is a Nazi concentration camp where thousands of Jews were exterminated.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The study of corporate crimesprecepts and significance Essay

The study of corporate crimesprecepts and significance - Essay Example While many factors including lack of public awareness and concern, the myth that corporate crimes are not serious and/or victimless, absence of broad-based social movement against corporate crime, and the corporate domination of society and academics may have hindered the development of corporate criminology as an academic speciality in the past, the need to address corporate crime as an area of behaviour demanding deep and urgent study by criminologists has been suggested by many researchers.1 The report examines the subject matter of corporate criminology, and attempts to understand the criminological precepts and legal concepts associated with corporate crime. In doing so it shall examine the definitions, classifications and theorisations of corporate criminal behaviour and wrongdoings as well as the implications of corporate criminalisation. The report shall analyse the nature and extent of corporate crimes in the U.K., in understanding the significance of the study of corporate crimes. Edwin Sutherland's 1940 study, "White Collar Criminality" is understood to be the first attempt to study corporate wrongdoings from a criminological perspective.2 Despite his frequent reference to 'white-collar crimes', Sutherland's main concern, as Kramer observes, was "with the crime of corporations".3 Although Sutherland's work was recognized as an important contribution, his efforts, 'a legacy scorned by its putative beneficiaries,'4 did not leave much interest among criminologists, as corporate crime remained largely outside the purview of criminology until 1970s. Doherty comments that the failure of criminologists to address corporate crimes was not entirely wilful, stating that many obstacles including apparent public ambivalence, lack of assessment and awareness of the seriousness of corporate crime and the absence of a valid and meaningful definition has limited the development of corporate criminology as a concerted study.5 From an academic/theoretical perspective, the issues related to defining corporate crime is of particular significance, as a valid and meaningful definition that demarcates the boundaries of the study needs to be established. Defining Corporate Crime Geis and Meier have observed that defining the concept of corporate crime has been traditionally considered as the 'toughest intellectual nightmare,' facing a corporate criminologist.6 Many researchers studying corporate crime often inconsistently use the term 'white-collar crime' to refer to corporate crime. It may be worthwhile to examine the way white-collar crime and corporate crimes are defined and understood. Sutherland defines white-collar crime 'as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.'7 Apparently, his definition focuses on the individual offender; however, Gobert and Punch suggests that his later observation, "the criminality of the corporations, like that of professional thieves, is persistent: a large number of the offenders are recidivists" suggests the inclusion of corporations within the category of these offenders.8 Gobert and Punch suggest that corporate crime, in essence refers to the individual, collective and organisational wrongdoing in a business setting.9 These definitions blur the distinction between

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Trends Related To the Social, Economic, Technological, Competitive, Assignment

Trends Related To the Social, Economic, Technological, Competitive, and Regulatory Forces that Relate to the Product or Service - Assignment Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that economic factors include interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation and exchange rates. The current economic slowdown ensures that clients will start focusing on alternatives which will save their energy bill in the long run. It has been observed that new technologies create new products and new processes. It may be observed here that solar installations have become must more cost-efficient in the least efficient. Continuous R&D has also ensured that cost of production of other energy conserving products has gone down. Greenomics has a distinct first-mover advantage as the market is still new for players to come in and set up shop. Since it is a very new market, Greenomics may enjoy unique benefits while negotiating with its suppliers and end clients. Regulatory factors are the biggest positives that Greenomics have and will continue to, encounter in their quest. With the current global trend favori ng carbon credit regulations and the move towards the ‘Green Office’, clients seem to be lined up for Greenomics! The most important factor that needs consideration while calculating the target market for Greenomics is the fact that the concept of a ‘Green Office’, is still a new concept. So there are no set benchmarks, no set pattern and no established rules concerning the use of energy efficient techniques. The market for Greenomics will consist of all interested in having in place energy-conserving techniques at a place. The initial customers will be comprised of offices who are interested in saving money on the power bill in the long run. A more conscious clientele will, however, emerge, who are concerned about the immense environmental costs associated with traditional energy and thus focus on better and more efficient methods.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

List given to choose from Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

List given to choose from - Research Paper Example Brian Turner is an American army veteran who served the army for seven years. He was assigned in Bosnia in 1999 and Herzegovina in 2000. Later, in 2004 he served as a team leader in the first Stryker brigade sent to Iraq, and was stationed near Mosul for much of 2004. As a poet, Turner’s contributions to war poetry, as Clover and Brouer note, are his earnest and proficient observations of war, which the audience would not find in a press release. In his poems, Turner provides his reflections of war apart from the Yeatsian style, which is said to â€Å"negotiate between the expectations of antiwar audience and the demands of American poetry as a national genre† (Metres 14). Instead, Turner employs seriality in his poems. The term seriality was first introduced by Jean-Paul Sarte and was later used by Iris Marion Young to refer to the collectivity of women â€Å"based on social experiences† (Zack 139). In this paper, the term seriality is used not just to refer to women but to a group of people with the same experiences, particularly soldiers or promoters of peace. In â€Å"Here, Bullet,† one can conceive the seriality among soldiers, not just American soldiers. The persona in the poem is a soldier who challenges bullet in his body to take his life, saying, â€Å"I dare you to finish what you have started. ..triggering my tongue’s explosives for the riffling I have inside of me† (8-9, 12-13). By talking to the bullet this way, the persona embodies every soldier’s view of life and death. Turner does not limit the identity of his persona to an American soldier. There are no descriptions to identify the soldier’s nationality. As such, the poem achieves universality as it deals with the struggles of soldiers for life. The seriality in Turner’s poems leads the audience to empathize with soldiers and feel resistance to war. The poem does not limit the audience to share the author’s political view of war. Instead, the poem guide the readers to gain personal insights and understanding of the issue by submerging them into the experience and not just soliciting reactions or observations as other poems usually do. This view of the audience as active participants in the experience is in accordance with Adorno’s view (Metres 13). Specifically, in Turner’s award-winning poem, â€Å"Here, Bullet,† the author powerfully uses the first-person perspective to address a bullet that is supposed to cause the persona’s death. The persona uses an implied personification and talks straight to the bullet, saying, Because here, Bullet,/here is where I complete the word you bring (9-10). As the readers recite the poem, they are led to assume the persona’s identity by the use of â€Å"I.† Addressing an inanimate object such as a bullet signifies a one-sided conversation that captures the interest of the readers to engage in the communication either as the per sona or the addressee. Unlike in a monologue where the persona controls his/her thoughts as he/she addresses him/herself, the dialogue allows the audience to participate as either the persona or the addressee, thus achieving seriality not only among soldiers but peacemakers alike. Turner’s use of polyvocal collage invites the readers to be active participants to the war experience or the journey. The term polyvocal collage suggests the use of different speakers in the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Hospitality Business Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Hospitality Business Development - Essay Example This paper illustrates that since the mid-1960s, Swire Group was running chains of hotels that offered its excellent services. The hotel offers quality services to its large clientele by serving healthy cuisine, offering lodging and conference facilities, as well as an offering outside catering services. In 2013, the total annual revenue for its classical services was in the excess of 1 billion US dollars for their Taiwan, Hong Kong, USA and China branches in. Swire Group is also involved in the logistics and cold storage and is renowned for having the largest refrigerated warehouse in Hong Kong. In both empirical and conceptual studies that involve business strategy, the repercussion of the business environment  is  a critical contingency factor at the hotel. The performance of any environment is pegged on its strategic position. In strategic management literature, one major concern is the manner in which organizations adapt to the strategic environment. This depicts the way in which companies attempt to fit properly within the business environment where they can operate amidst changes that happen in the corporate strategy. According to Wagen and Goonetilleke, strategic business environment leads to strategic analysis. A strategic analysis looks into the industry deeply as well as the organization’s operations that enable the management make successive decisions. Analysis of an organization should take place when carrying out a strategy to acknowledge the factors that influence the profitability of an organization. Analysis can either be external or internal.Additionally, internal and external analysis can be categorized into micro-environmental and macro-environmental.  

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Corrections policy paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Corrections policy - Research Paper Example The policy sought to effect the probation on the nonviolent crime offenders by holding them accountable and thus provision of effective supervision. The policy has indeed seen a sharp decline in the crime rate in the whole state and more so in Houston town that was notorious for worst crime rate among the state tourneys. The policy involved the appropriation of a sizable budget into prison detention alternatives. This included provision of drug courts, intermediate sanctions, treatment of mental cases rather than imprison them and smarter incarceration (Roberts, 2009). This correction policy was effected back then in 2007 that had the state use intensive resource directly paid by the citizens of the state. The upgrading package came due to the growing concerns with the court system as well as the civil society for need to have adequate facilities in the correction system. The budget was then approved by the legislature, which they projected would be sufficient for the coming years Th e need for other alternatives in the correctional system that bore the adult correction reform, was as a response to the many alternatives and waiting lists in the corrections system. The statements by the judges and data from correction officials were vital to the implementation of this policy. The effects of the policy are without doubt beneficial to Houston residents and the state of Texas at large. Identification and evaluation The correction policy identified is the â€Å"Adult Corrections Reform: Lower Crime, Lower Costs †. The policy was established with the purpose of giving smarter alternatives to the incarnation that would lower the costs used but still hold the offenders accountable for their crimes. The policy has over the last years resulted in the expansion of alternative capacity in the corrections system in our town. The nonviolent offenders have in the process been put on probation with strict and effective supervision by the correction officials. This is con trary to the previous policies that required them to be detained in the prisons thus congesting it. At the same time this had led to increases in prison capacity that meant more costs. The policy has seen a significant reduction of crime rate in Texas and in particular our Houston town. Texas had been ranked among the states with a higher crime rate in the late 70s coming 4th in the survey done by the FBI. The policy has helped the state to record the lowest ever crime rate at 12.8% decrease between 2005 1nd 2010. The incarceration rate among the adults in the same period of time has been reduced by a significant 9%. This has marked a great milestone in the correction policy implementation. The strategies have a low crime rate enabled the state to reduce crime significantly and hence avoid building of new more prison facilities. The expense was to involve the addition of more than 17,000 new beds in the prisons across the state. The policy used $55million in probation departments ai med at reducing the revocation rate among adult offenders and increasing supervision on the sanctions applied. The policy implementation led to a decrease in the rate of revocation in the prison departments thus saving the taxpayers a massive $119 million (Legislative Budget Board, 2011). Earlier on, parole and

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Collecting Data Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Collecting Data - Essay Example It is not unusual for ethnographers to live in the culture for months or even years. The middle stages of the ethnographic method involve gaining informants, using them to gain yet more informants in a chaining process, and gathering of data in the form of observational transcripts and interview recordings. Data analysis and theory development come at the end, though theories may emerge from cultural immersion and theory-articulation by members of the culture. However, the ethnographic researcher strives to avoid theoretical preconceptions and instead to induce theory from the perspectives of the members of the culture and from observation. The researcher may seek validation of induced theories by going back to members of the culture for their reaction Ethnography is a form of research focusing on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of sociocultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community (not necessarily geographic, considering also work, leisure, and other communities), selecting informants who are known to have an overview of the activities of the community. Such informants are asked to identify other informants representative of the community, using chain sampling to obtain a saturation of informants in all empirical areas of investigation. Informants are interviewed multiple times, using information from previous informants to elicit clarification and deeper responses upon re-interview. This process is intended to reveal common cultural understandings related to the phenomena under study. These subjective but collective understandings on a subject (ex., stratification) are often interpreted to be more significant than objective data (ex., income differentials). Ethnography is a qualitative research method that is used by anthropologists to describe a culture. Culture has many definitions but usually consists of origins, values, roles, and material items associated with a particular group of people. Ethnographic research, therefore, attempts to fully describe a variety of aspects and norms of a cultural group to enhance understanding of the people being studied. Historically, anthropologists who performed ethnographic research often would live in the community being investigated. Ethnographic research has focused on various foreign cultures to gain understanding about native people who are isolated from Western civilization. One famous anthropologist who performed this type of research was Margaret Mead. Her classic study of three New Guinea cultures explored those cultures' gender characteristics and roles. By studying a variety of cultural norms, gender characteristics, and roles, this type of research can help scientists categorize nature versus nurture gender characteristics. Many ethnographic studies have documented cultural roles that challenge Western perspectives of innate gender characteristics.(1) In ethnographic studies, the orientation of the researcher is termed etic or emic. An etic orientation is a view from an outsider's perspective. For example, if an ethnographer studied the culture of perioperative nurses and had no perioperative nursing experience, that researcher's interpretations would be from an etic perspective. If a perioperative nurse studied the culture of the OR or the organization of AORN, those interpretations would be from an insider's, or emic, perspective. Ethnographic resea

Impact of Religion, Faith, or the Dominant Ethical System on Politics Essay - 1

Impact of Religion, Faith, or the Dominant Ethical System on Politics - Essay Example Statistics of the breakdown in religious affiliations of the faithful in the Philippines reveal that â€Å"the main religious group in the Philippines is Roman Catholics who account for 83% of the population. Other religions include Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%.† (NationMaster, 1) In view of the predominance of Roman Catholics in the Philippines, the majority’s religious beliefs have a strong effect on the view towards politics and the existing governmental structure. The long history of colonization from Spain brought great changes in the political, economic and cultural life of the Filipinos. Christianity was introduced to replace the old religion based on spirit worship and a centralized government was established over the ruins of the barangays. (Leuterio, 223) Dolan proffered that â€Å"with the advent of United States control, the Catholic Church relinquished its great estates. Church and state officially were separated, although the church, counting more than 80 percent of the population as members, continued to have influence when it wanted to exert it.† (Dolan, Church-State Relations, 1) Further, Dolan clearly distinguished Catholics falling into three groups: â€Å"conservatives who were suspicious of social action and held that Christian love could best be expressed through existing structures; moderates, probably the largest group, in favor of social action but inclined to cooperate with government programs; and progressives, who did not trust the government programs, were critical both of Philippine business and of American influence.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 38

Strategic Management - Essay Example According McKienan and Carter, planning enables the company or organization to set priorities focus energies and resources, strengthen operations and ensures employees and stakeholders are working towards a common goal (2000). It helps managers to establish the objectives they want to achieve and the intended outcome from their activities and assess and adjust the organization direction in response to the changing market structure. To achieve all these management needs to come up with a strategic plan that will guide them in management. A strategic plan is a document used to communicate the organizational objectives and goals that focuses on the actions that needed to be taken to realize these goals. Strategic management is guided by that written document. Clark maintains that strategic management transforms the static plan into a structure that provides strategic performance response to decision-making process and enables it to grow and adjust to changes (2004). Execution of the plan is synonymous with management, and it results in a systematic implementation of the plan. A good strategy tends to answer three critical questions that are; where is the organization at the moment? Where does it want to go? And, how will it get there? It should consider the end always. It is not about predicting the future it is about preparing for it with the exact steps the company has to follow in mind in order to gain a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is what keeps a company ahead of others in the same industry. According to Lowendahl and Revang, a company with a competitive advantage will perform fairly better than the rest in terms of revenue development and customers’ satisfaction (2004). Planning is not guarantee that companies will achieve more competitive advantage over the rest, but it is an essential process that can enhance sustainability of the company in the business. Strategy

Monday, July 22, 2019

Management Influences on Turnover Intention of Software Developers Essay Example for Free

Management Influences on Turnover Intention of Software Developers Essay Introduction The Information Technology (IT) Age has created many opportunities for employment in the IT and IT services industry.   IT professionals are in demand all over the world.   Organizations worldwide invest money that go not only into salaries but for further training of IT professionals they hire. However, around the world, the demand, supply, selection, recruitment and particularly retention of IT professionals has threatened organizations that use, manage or deal in IT or IT services for the past few years (Parà © and Tremblay 2000; Ermel and Bohl 1997; Morello 1998; Guptill et al. 1999). This is why the departure of an IT professional from a company usually comes with disastrous effects to the organization.   When an IT professional resigns, the organization suffers loss of business process knowledge and acquired technical skills (Dorà © 2004). Since late 1996, the turnover for IT professionals has jumped from 15% to 20% annually, with only 8 of 10 IT positions being filled with qualified candidates (McNee et al. 1998).   With the annual turnover rate estimated at 20% or more (Alexander 1999; Kosseff 1999), job-hopping of IT professionals has been one of the biggest problems among managers and human resources (HR) experts (Parà © and Tremblay 2000). IT professionals seem to have a tendency to change their jobs faster than other employees when they feel dissatisfied with their current employer (Hacker 2003).   The estimated cost of replacing IT professionals range from 1.5 to 2.5 times of their annual salaries for the companies they resigned from (Kosseff 1999).   On the other hand, the cost of losing a qualified IT professional is actually 3 to 6 times more expensive than the cost of losing a manager (Kochanski and Ledford 2001). IT professionals, as also mentioned previously in this study, also tend to change jobs more quickly than other employees when they feel dissatisfied with in their current employment (Hacker 2003).   However, rational models of voluntary turnover cannot be used to explain the high turnover rates for IT professionals (Rouse 2001) since many IT professionals remain dissatisfied with their jobs even though they enjoy high financial rewards yet their creativity and expertise do not receive high respect from their peers, supervisors and companies as a whole (Fisher 2000). Furthermore, another explanation why IT professionals may resign more quickly when dissatisfied with their current employment is that â€Å"much of IT work is project oriented, the technical employee’s loyalty may be more to the project, and not necessarily to the employer† (Hacker, 2003, p. 15). These trends place intense pressure on both IT executives and HR managers.   High IT professional turnover translates to a threat not only to an organization’s IT department but to the business as a whole. Most importantly, high IT turnover poses a threat to the growth, competitive positioning and strength of the global economy (Parà © and Tremblay 2000). A dissertation by Dr. Timothy Lee Dorà © (2004) studied the relationships between job characteristics, job satisfaction and turnover intention among software developers.   These two factors – job characteristics and job satisfaction – are deemed to play crucial roles in understanding turnover intention not only among software developers but IT professionals as a whole. The current study aims to investigate the management influences on employee retention of IT professionals, focusing on job characteristics and job satisfaction, and their impact on turnover and retention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.1.1  Ã‚  Ã‚   Scope and Limitations of the Study This research will study the impact of job characteristics and job satisfaction on the turnover intention of IT professionals.   Although this paper intends to replicate some of Dorà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s findings, the study will not be limited to software developers only as this sector only constitutes a small sample of IT professionals as a whole. Specifically, the research study will focus on the turnover intention of IT professionals in___________. In studying the relationships between job characteristics, job satisfaction and turnover intention, this study is limited to the use of the following theoretical models and theories to support its conclusions: For the discussion on job characteristics, the research study will make use of the Job Characteristics Model developed by JR Hackman and GR Oldham (1975/1980) and the analysis on Model Employers by Minda Zetlin (2001). For the discussion on job satisfaction, as well as motivation, the paper will use the Motivator-Hygiene Theory by F. Herzberg (1968/2003) and the Synergistic Model by T.M. Amabile (1997). For the discussion on turnover, the study will use the Voluntary Turnover Model by R.M. Steers and R.T. Mowday (1987); the Rational Turnover Model by P.D. Rouse (2001); the Instinctual or â€Å"Unfolding† Model of Turnover by T.W. Lee, T.R. Mitchell, L. Wise and S. Fireman (1996); and the Conceptual Model for Investigating Turnover in IT, developed by J.B. Thatcher, L.P. Stepna and R.J. Boyle (2002-03) These models will be discussed in detail later in this chapter, as well as in Chapter 2 on Review of Related Literature. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter will analyze the various literature which are related to this research paper. It will discuss the works of other analysts and researchers on theories/models that will be used to support this study, as well as pertinent literature on IT professionals’ turnover intentions. The chapter begins with a general discussion on motivational theories, cutlure, and leadership which are all critical factors that affect an employee’s intent to leave. The discussion them dovetails into a more specific presentation of the framework used in the current study. This chapter will also include a definition of terms incorporated into the discussion of related literature. 2.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Relationships between Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention In 2004, Timothy Lee Dorà © submitted a dissertation titled â€Å"The Relationships Between Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention Among Software Developers†.  Ã‚   According to Dorà ©, the factors leading to the turnover intention of software developers have been poorly understood.   His study was designed to further understand the relationships between job characteristics, job satisfaction, and turnover intention among software developers.   His study involved the use of 326 web surveys that contained questions relating to job characteristics, job satisfaction, turnover intention and demographic information. The results of Dorà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s study showed that several factors can influence turnover intention, most significantly, job characteristics that may be influenced by management, such as training, autonomy, feedback, number of developers, task significance, and skill variety (Dorà © 2004).   In his study, Dorà © made use of two research questions and sixteen hypotheses to understand the job characteristics variables which contribute to the various dimensions of job satisfaction, and which of these job satisfaction dimensions, in turn, contribute to turnover intention. Dorà © made use of indirect effect tests, to determine if certain job characteristics could be linked to turnover intention through the job satisfaction scales he provided.   The results of his study indicated that ten of the indirect effects were statistically significant.   All ten of the statistically significant indirect effects were associated with only three of the seven job satisfaction scales: internal work motivation, general job satisfaction, and satisfaction with pay. The largest indirect effect, according to Dorà ©, was the effect of autonomy on turnover intention through general job satisfaction: higher levels of autonomy lead to lower levels of turnover intention by increasing general job satisfaction.  Ã‚   The next largest indirect effect was the effect of organizational training on turnover intention through general job satisfaction: organizational training decreased turnover intention through an increase in general job satisfaction.   The next three highest indirect effects in Dorà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s findings were also between a job characteristic (feedback, skill, variety, and number of developers) and turnover intention through general job satisfaction (Dorà ©, 2004, p. 130). 2.2  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Measuring Turnover Intentions Among IT Professionals Guy Parà © and Michel Tremblay, in contrast to Dorà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s study, completed a research covering the turnover intention of not just software developers but IT professionals as a whole.   Their study, â€Å"The Measurement and Antecedents of Turnover Intentions among IT Professionals† (2000), submitted to Cirano research center, aimed to present and test an integrated model of turnover intentions that address the unique nature of the IT profession (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 3).   The authors identified a multidimensional set of HR practices that will most likely increase retention among IT employees.  Ã‚   They emphasized citizenship behaviors as well as two distinct types of organizational commitment as key antecedents of turnover intentions. The study involved the sending of questionnaires to 394 Quebec members of the Canadian Information Processing Society.  Ã‚   The study addressed four research questions: 1) What are the essential HR practices necessary to create an effective plan for retaining IT professionals? 2) What is the impact of compensation and negotiation conditions on the turnover intentions of IT personnel? 3) What is the effect of employee demographic characteristics on the turnover intentions of IT personnel? 4) Do organizational commitment and citizenship behaviors mediate the effects of HR practices, compensation and negotiation conditions as well as demographic characteristics on the turnover intentions of IT personnel? (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 4) Parà © and Tremblay provide that IT employees who are highly committed to their organization are less likely to leave than those who are relatively uncommitted.   They attach three distinct dimensions to organizational commitment: affective, continuance and normative commitment (Meyer and Allen 1997). 1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Affective commitment – means an employee’s personal attachment and identification to the organization.   This results in a strong belief in an acceptance of the organization’s goals and values.   â€Å"Employees with a strong affective commitment continue employment with the organization because they want to do so† (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 5) 2)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Continuance commitment – is a tendency to engage in consistent lines of activity based on the individual’s recognition of the â€Å"costs† associated with discontinuing the activity.  Ã‚   â€Å"Employees whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance commitment remain because they need to do so.† (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 5) 3)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Normative commitment – provides that employees exhibit behaviors solely because they believe it is the right and moral thing to do. â€Å"Employees with a high level of normative commitment feel that they ought to remain with the organization.† (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 5) In their findings, Parà © and Tremblay provide that affective commitment and continuance commitment are negatively related to turnover intentions (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 6).   In addition to these two distinct types of commitment affecting turnover intention, their studies also points to the factor they call Organizational Citizenship Behavior or OCB. OCB is considered as a key element in organizational effectiveness.   OCB is defined as â€Å"an employee’s willingness to go above and beyond the prescribed roles which they have been assigned† (Parà © and Tremblay, 2000, p. 6, quoting from Organ 1990). Based on Parà © and Tremblay’s findings, the stronger the citizenship behavior of an IT employee, the more likely they are to stay in their company.   The IT professional’s affective commitment, or attachment to his or her organization, also decreases turnover intention. 2.3  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Job Characteristics Model Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model, as earlier introduced in Chapter 1 of this research study, predicts what aspects of jobs reflect the level of job enrichment for employees, and how these relate to employees’ individual differences and to the work outcomes required. The model includes five core job characteristics that can be applied to any job: skill variety, task identity, task significance, task autonomy and feedback. Skill variety is defined as â€Å"the number of different skills required in the job† (Hackman and Oldham 1980; Pilon 1998). Task identity means â€Å"the completeness of the tasks done in the job† (Hackman and Oldham 1980; Pilon 1998). Task significance on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the importance of the job to the served population.† (Mohamed 2004). Autonomy means â€Å"the vertical expansion of responsibility, the amount of decision-making and independence allowed for employees.† (Mohamed 2004). And lastly, feedback means â€Å"the extent that the job itself provides information about employees’ performance† (Huber 2000). These characteristics – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback – are combined into a single predictive index which is called the Motivating Potential Score (Hackman and Oldham 1980). Figure 1. Job Characteristics Model Source: A.H. Mohamed (2004)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The five core job characteristics enumerated in the previous paragraph are in continuous interaction with individual differences that evoke three critical psychological states in an employee.   These three states are: 1) when the job is structured by skill variety, task identity and task significance this could lead employees to experience meaningfulness in their work. 2) The second state, task autonomy, which leads to feelings of responsibility for the outcomes of work. 3) The third and last state is feedback, which leads employees towards knowledge of the results of their work (Douthit 2000; Huber 2000).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These three critical psychological states lead to a set of affective and personal outcomes:   high internal work motivation, high growth satisfaction, high general satisfaction, high work effectiveness, and low rate of absenteeism (Mohamed 2004; Donovan and Radosevich 1998).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These affective and personal outcomes are the results of en employee’s job characteristics.   They are defined as follows: High internal work motivation – this is the degree to which an employee is willing to work and to consider the organizational objectives as part of his or her own goals (Mohamed 2004). High growth satisfaction – this is the achievement of the employee in overcoming challenges, succeeding and growing (Steers and Black 1994) High general satisfaction – this the feeling derived from the overall satisfaction with the work itself. â€Å"This type of satisfaction is reflected mainly in decreased rates of absenteeism among employees† (Steers and Black 1994; Omachonu et al 1999). High work effectiveness – this refers to both the quality and quantity aspects of work performance (Hackman and Oldham 1980). Low rate of absenteeism. The Job Characteristics Model, also includes three attributes that are identified as Moderators: knowledge and skills, context job satisfaction, and employee growth-need strength.   These attributes indicate which employee will respond positively to the Motivating Potential Score of their job and its outcomes (Hackman and Oldham 1980). An employee’s knowledge and skills are dependent on their educational qualifications which in turn will reflect their perceptions toward their work outcomes (Sabiston and Laschinger 1995).   On the other hand, an employee’s perception of his or her context job satisfaction involves factors like pay, supervision, colleagues, and job security.   All these affect the employee’s outcomes as well (Mohamed 2004).  Ã‚   Lastly, growth-need strength is the degree in which an employee seeks opportunities in his or her job for self-direction, learning and personal accomplishment.   These elements in turn affect the employee’s level of work internal motivation (Mohamed 2004). An example of a study which made effective use of Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model is the one conducted by A.H. Mohamed (2004) called â€Å"Using the job characteristics model to compare patient care assignment methods of nurses† for the Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria in Egypt.  Ã‚   The population used were the nurses in the Alexandria Main University Hospital.   Mohamed made use of a Job Diagnostic Survey (also developed by Hackman and Oldham) to determine nurses’ perceptions towards the components of the Job Characteristics Model in relation to their performance in utilizing the case and functional methods of patient care assignment (Mohamed 2004). In his study, Mohamed concludes that the jobs of intensive care unit nurses result in different expectations based also on the different categories of nurses, based on skills and challenges inherent in the work they perform (Mohamed 2004). Generally speaking thus, studies like Mohamed shows that an employee’s personal and affective outcomes are a result of the employee’s job characteristics. 2.4  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Model Employers However, management also plays a crucial role in the retention and conversely turnover of IT professionals.  Ã‚   Since IT professionals still enjoy a wide selection of employers to choose from, employers constantly compete to attract the best IT professionals by becoming â€Å"model employers†.   In her 2001 article for Computer World, called â€Å"Model employers†, Minda Zetlin outlines the strategies that make certain companies â€Å"model employers†. By compiling its eight annual list of 100 Best Places to Work in IT, Computer World roughly sums up the model employers as offering not just top compensation, but also â€Å"opportunities for career growth, investment in training, diversity in the work place, work flexibility, and, ideally, a comfortable and fun place to spend their daytime hours† (Zetlin 2001).   Zetlin in her article outlines three common themes behind the success of these model IT employers: IT is central to the best employers’ success According to Zetlin, excellence in IT is a top corporate strategy.  Ã‚   Prioritizing IT should not be limited to companies that strictly provide IT or IT services.   Companies such as Avon, for instance, which ranks 4th in Computer World’s list of 100 best employers, may be perceived to operate on a relationship-based environment.  Ã‚   Yet to process its more than 60 million custom orders every year, the company relies heavily on IT to process its complex supply chain.   The fact that is it is actually a very transactional business, dependent on technology, makes IT one of its priorities (Zetlin 2001). Management takes an active interest in employers’ careers from the day they arrive This includes having development plan for employees as soon as they join the organization.   Employees meet with their managers on a periodic basis for a formal review to assess their development plan and to evaluate its progress.  Ã‚   Orientation programs at the start of the employment are also part of this strategy.   Apart from orientation, Harley-Davidson, Inc. (ranked as No. 11) also provides for a yearly self-assessment for its employees against the established competencies for their jobs, with their supervisors doing the same (Zetlin 2001).   Such focus on career development per employee makes the employee feel that management takes an active interest in aligning its objectives with the employee’s personal goals. Model employers also provide for continuous interest on their employees’ careers throughout their employment with the company.   Knowledge mentoring programs and career mentoring programs, used by the State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. (ranked No. 13), for instance, allow employees to learn more skills and career guidance from their more experience colleagues, and help management to identify employees to fill leaderships positions in the short and long term (Zetlin 2001).   State Farm’s mentoring program is in fact so successful that it has extended the program to employees who haven’t even arrived yet – such as assigning mentors to college students who plan to join State Farm after they graduate. There are no walls between business and IT Unlike other organizations, model employers ensure that IT people and business people work side by side.   There is no division or competition.  Ã‚   IT professionals are given a better understanding that what they do helps the business succeed.   This understanding leads to career satisfaction for IT professionals.   Technology people know exactly how they contribute to the revenues of their business and how important they are in the business plan.   One advantage here is that a close relationship between IT and business allows people to switch between the two fields (Zetlin 2001).   Another strategies such as cross-functional work teams gives career development not just to IT professionals but to business people in the organization as well.  Ã‚   There are continuously different career tracks available.   An IT professional may opt to advance by taking on management roles within technology, or they may shift to business management positions (Zetlin 2001). 2.5  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Voluntary Intention Model   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   R.M. Steers and R.T. Mowday, in their study â€Å"Employee turnover and post-decision accommodation processes† (1981) analyzed turnover as rooted in voluntary intention.   Steers and Mowday viewed the interaction of intention to leave, and alternative job opportunities (ease of movement) as direct antecedents to turnover (Steers and Mowday 1981; Rouse 2001).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As earlier discussed in Chapter 1 of this study, the direction of the process in Steers’ and Mowday’s Voluntary Intention Model starts with Job Expectations, then Affective Responses, then Turnover Intention, then finally,   Actual Turnover (see Section of this paper).   However, these four elements were actually grouped together by Steers and Mowday under three steps. As can be seen in the Figure 3: Each step in Figure 3 contains two constructs.   The second construct (Job Attitudes) of Step 1 becomes the first construct of Step 2.   The second construct (Intent To Leave) of Step 2 becomes the first construct of Step 3. Step 1 of the Voluntary Intention Model involves the manner in which job expectations influence an employee’s attitudes regarding his or her job.   Attitudes are composed of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement.   Job expectations in turn are influenced by three stimuli. The first stimuli focuses on individual characteristics such as occupation, age, tenure, family concerns, and personality form (Steers and Mowday 1981; Rouse 2001). The second stimuli involves information obtained during the recruitment process and at various assessments points throughout the employee’s career (Steers and Mowday 1981; Rouse 2001). For instance, studies have shown that job expectation levels are often high when the employee first accepts a new job (Porter and Steers 1973). At these particular periods, expectations are developed from both the employee and employer’s ends. In other words, a sort of unwritten social contract is deemed to be adopted by the two parties (Prouse 2001). Lastly, the third stimuli affecting job expectations are alternative job opportunities.   Studies have shown that the more alternatives there are confronting an employee, then the more negative the employee’s attitudes becomes concerning his or her current job (Pfeffer and Lawler 1979). Step 2 in the Voluntary Intention Model involves the Affective Responses that are elicited from Step 1.   These responses include the construct of job satisfaction, and how those responses influence the employee’s desire to leave the organization.   Factors that affect the employee’s decision to leave include non-work factors such as family, hobbies, religion and political influences (Cohen 1995). Steers and Mowday also identified the potential of employees to alter their actual job, in terms of pay, working hours, environment, etc., and thus change their attitudes regarding their jobs (Prouse 2001). Chapter 3 Methodology The aim of the research is to examine the relationships between job characteristic, job satisfaction and turnover intention among IT professionals in ______________.   The proposition is that job satisfaction and job characteristics as management influences have indirect impact to the levels of turnover intention among IT professionals.   The literature review indicates that there are different factors affecting IT professionals’ turnover intention.   This research is going to study the turnover intention of IT professionals in _____________. 3.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Research Questions The study will answer the following two research questions: Which job characteristic variable(s) causes the job satisfaction among IT professionals in ____________? What job satisfaction variable(s) cause the turnover intention among IT professionals in ____________?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In answering these two primary questions, the thesis will make use of the following framework:    Hypotheses Research Question 1   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Which job characteristic variable(s) causes the job satisfaction among IT professionals in _______________?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first research question will analyze the standardized effect of job characteristics to job satisfiers.  Ã‚   The null hypotheses tested were: Job Characteristics à   Job Satisfactions H1: The level of IT training does not affect the various measures of job satisfaction. H2: The level of user contact does not affect the various measures of job satisfaction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H3: The job-required skills do not affect the various measures of job satisfaction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H4: The level of task significance does not affect job satisfaction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H5: The amount of workload does not affect job satisfaction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H6: The amount of feedback does not affect job satisfaction. Research Question 2   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"What job satisfaction variable(s) cause the turnover intention among IT professionals in ________________?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first research question will analyze the standardized effect of the job satisfaction scales to turnover intention.  Ã‚   The null hypotheses tested were:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Job Satisfactions à   Turnover Intention   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H7: The level of internal work motivation does not affect turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H8: The level of job security satisfaction does not affect turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H9: The level of social job satisfaction does not affect turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H10: The level of job growth satisfaction does not affect turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H11: The level of satisfaction with pay does not affect turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   H12: The level of satisfaction with supervision does not affect turnover intention. Research Procedures   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.3.1  Ã‚  Ã‚   Data Collection   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Research is a process of studying and analyzing situational factors of a specific problem or issue in order to determine solutions of it (Cavana, Delahaye and Sekaran 2001). According to Cavana, Delahaye and Sekaran (2001), there are three research paradigms: positivist, interpretivist and critical research.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As the research hypotheses of this study try to explore the relationships between job characteristic, job satisfaction and turnover intention among the IT professionals in __________________, the positivist approach will be adopted and it will provide the framework upon which the methodology of this study can be used.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this study, the research problem requires primary data to specifically address the twelve hypotheses. An Internet questionnaire will be used as it is the most effective and appropriate data collection method. â€Å"Questionnaire† is defined as a â€Å"pre-formulated written set of questions to which respondents recorded their answers within closely defined alternatives† (Cavana, Delahaye and Sekaran, 2001). A well-designed questionnaire provides accurate and useable data for analysis in order to make a conclusion of accepting / rejecting a research hypothesis.  Ã‚   A copy of the questionnaire to be used is attached as Appendix A of this study.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After gathering the data from questionnaires, the analysis of the data (including frequency distribution, correlation analysis and regression analysis) will be performed by a quantitative data analysis tool called SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). SPSS predictive analytics advances in usability and data access, drawing reliable conclusions from the collected quantitative data (SPSS, Inc. 2002). In depth quantitative analysis of the data will be undertaken. Frequency Distribution, Correlation Analysis, and Regression Analysis will be used to analyze the collected data.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The population of this research is the _________ professionals in the country. The research is expected to have a 10% response rate (i.e. ____ questionnaires).   A reminder email will be sent to the students to ensure reaching the planned response rate. Participants are not inconvenienced or exposed unnecessarily to potential harm by recruiting more than is required. The research conducted by Dorà © in 2004 (which this paper intends to compare itself to) only received 326 responses which is less than 0.1% of the population.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An invitation email   will be sent to the administration managers of the participating institutions. Then the manager will forward the invitation email to all qualified IT professionals and invite them to fill in the Internet anonymous questionnaire within 10 business days. A reminder email will be sent by the manager on the 6th business day. The invitation email only contains a consent form   and a URL to the Internet anonymous questionnaire. Participation is entirely voluntary. The participant can withdraw at any time and there will be no disadvantage if the participant decides not to complete the survey.   At no time will any individual be identified in any reports resulting from this study. A copy of the consent form is attached with this application. Variables   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The variables which will used in this study can be categorized into two categories: job characteristics and job satisfaction.   The factors within each category are discussed as follows:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The following job characteristics for IT professionals were selected for this study, based also on previous usage in similar studies as indicated in the literature review: IT Training User Contact Job-required Skills Task Significance Workload Feedback   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the other hand, the job satisfaction scales include the following: Internal Work Motivation Job Security Satisfaction Social Job Satisfaction Job Growth Satisfaction Satisfaction with Pay Satisfaction with Supervision Data Analysis   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The study will make use of descriptive and inferential analysis were used throughout the study.  Ã‚   Descriptive statistics (percentages, means, standard deviations, frequencies, and item means) were computed using the SPSS (SPSS, Inc., 2002).   This general-purpose analysis program will be used to characterize the sample in terms of demographic characteristics pertaining to gender, income, education, age, years as an IT professional, years in the current organization, and years in the current position.   SPSS will likewise used to analyze the correlation among job characteristics, the correlation between job satisfaction scales, the correlation between job satisfaction and job characteristics, and the correlation between job characteristics, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The primary inferential technique that will be used is bivariate correlation.   SPSS will   also be used to analyze the regression analysis for the data.   A 0.01 level of significance was adopted for testing significance.   The standardized effects of all the job characteristics for each job satisfier will also be computed.   The same method will be used to analyze the standardized effect of all the job satisfaction scales to turnover intention.   From these standardized effect analyses, the prediction of turnover intention by job satisfaction scales will be computed.    The job satisfaction scales which had a 0.60 level were considered significant to turnover intention.   The reliability coefficients ranging between 0.60 and 0.70 are deemed adequate for research purposes (Aiken, 2000, p.88).   For purposes of this study, the job satisfiers and job characteristics which have indirect effects of 0.60 above significance to turnover intention will be used.   The standardized effect of the significant job characteristic will be multiplied to the standardized effect of the particular job satisfier.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Each of the twelve hypotheses of this study will be tested in essentially six multiple regression analyses – one for each job satisfier as the constant, independent variable and its relation to each dependent variable represented by the job characteristics.   Otherwise stated, each job satisfier will represent a criterion variable and the six job characteristics will be considered predictors in each of the six regression analyses. References Alexander, S. M. (1999, November 1). The tricks for retaining talent. Crain’s Cleveland Business, T2-T3. Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review, 40, 39-58. Cavana, R. Y., Delahaye, B. L., and U. Sekaran. (2001). Applied Business Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods, John Wiley Sons Australia, Ltd., Milton. Cohen, A. (1995). An examination of the relationships between work commitment and nonwork domains. Human Relations, 48, 239-263. Donovan, J.J., and D.J. Radosevich, (1998). The moderating role of goal commitment on the goal difficulty–performance relationship: a meta-analytic review and critical re-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 1998, 83:308–15. Dorà ©, Timothy Lee. (2004).   The Relationships Between Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention Among Software Developers. Graduate School of Argosy University-Orange County. Douthit, M.W., (2000). Job satisfaction returns to human and social capital. Journal of behavioral and applied management, 2000, 1(1):67. Fisher, A. (2000, December 18). Inspiring the burned-out computer programmer. Fortune, 334. Guptill, B. Stewart, B. Maroccio, L., Potter, K. and C. Claps (1999). 1998 IT Spending and Staffing Survey Results. Gartner Group Strategic Analysis Report, April 1st. Hacker, C.A. (2003, Spring). Turnover: A silent profit killer. Information Systems Management, 14-18. Hackman JR, and GR Oldham, (1980). Work design. Reading, Massachusetts, Addison–Wesley, 1980:114–21. Herzberg, F. (1968). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland: World. Herzberg, F. (2003, January). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 87-96. Kochanski, J., and G. Ledford. (2001). ‘How to keep me’—Retaining technical professionals. Research Technology Management, 44(3), 31-38. Kosseff, J. (1999, September 6). Info-tech firms increase efforts to keep workers. Crain’s Detroit Business, p. 21. McNee, B. Morello T. Zidar, E. and C. Smith (1998). IT Staff Retention and Recruitment: Addressing a Critical Problem for the IS Organization. Gartner Group Strategic Analysis Report, September 28. Meyer, J.P., and N.J. Allen, (1997). Commitment in the Workplace, Sage Publications. Mohamed, A.H. (2004, May) Using the job characteristics model to compare patient care assignment methods of nurses, Vol. 10, No. 3, May 2004, p. 389-405.   Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt. Morello, D.T. (1998). IT retention and recruitment: What has a year brought? Gartner Group Monthly Research Review, September 01. Omachonu V.K., Swift, J.A., Ross, J.E., eds. Principles of total quality, 3rd ed. Florida, St. Lucie Press, 1999:335. Organ D.W., (1990). The motivational Basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior  » In B.M. Parà ©, G. and Tremblay, M. (2000).   The Measurement and Antecedents of Turnover Intentions among IT Professionals.   Scientific Series.   Ciprano.   September 2000. Pfeffer, J., Lawler, J. (1979). The effects of jb alternatives, extrinsic rewards, and commitment on satisfaction with the organization: A field example of the insufficient justification paradigm . Berkeley: University of California. Pilon BA. Outcomes and surprises of work redesigning: how other leaders are coping with changes. Nursing Management, 1998, 29(8):44–5. Porter, L. W., and R.M. Steers. (1973). Organizational, work and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 151-176. Rouse, P. D. (2001). Voluntary turnover related to information technology professionals: A review of rational and instinctual models. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 9, 281-290. Sabiston J.A., and H.K. Laschinger (1995). Staff nurse work empowerment and perceived autonomy. Journal of nursing administration, 1995, 25(9):42–50. SPSS, Inc. (2002).   Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Version 11.5) [Computer software].   Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc. Steers, R. M., and R.T. Mowday. (1981). Employee turnover and post-decision accommodation processes. In L. Cummings B. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 235-281). Steers, R.M., and J.C. Black. Organizational behavior, 5th ed. New York, Harper Collins, 1994:95–101. Thatcher, J.B., Stepna, L.P. and R.J. Boyle (2002-03).   Turnover of information technology workers: Examining empirically the influence of attitudes, job characteristics, and external markets.   Journal of Management Information Systems, 19, 231-261. Zetlin, M. (2001, June 4). Model employers. Computerworld, 40-45.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

World War 1: Harold Begbie, Fall-In

World War 1: Harold Begbie, Fall-In The emotions and ideas of the great world war was very different as it was seen as honourable and ‘Edenic. It was also seen as vile and chthonic. The emotions and ideas of the people had evolved a lot throughout the war. August 1914 World War One had began and Britain was part of it .Men were quick to fight in World War One because it bought the thrill of adventure to their lives which was socially and economically very attractive unlike their former lives which were simple and dull. An appealing factor was that entertainment, food and drink were all provided for the soldiers. Men fought for freedom and honour. They were very patriotic and would die for their country. Glory was one of the many things they fought for. However some men were emotionally blackmailed, through posters and propaganda, into joining the army. The soldiers were considered socially and politically superior because they would fight for there country. The beginning of World War One Britain had not enforced conscription unlike most other most other European countries until 1916. The first two years of the war Britain used propaganda to emotionally blackmail the whole countries population. The government did this through various an example is a poster in which they used words like â€Å"You† a lot which are second person pronouns this made the reader feel as if it was personally to him. The government used some posters to make the men feel guilty and shameful and others to make them feel anger which made them want vengeance and pride. Further more, propaganda was expressed through recruiting poems a famous poem written by Harold Begbie in 1914 called â€Å"Fall-In† it became so famous that it was turned into a song. The poem was sung in working mens clubs and even in churches. The poem was also in the newspapers lots of times due to the government making them put it there since the whole poem was propaganda. Subsequently, Harold Begbie integrated powerful emotional blackmail which challenges the males sense of machismo: â€Å"But what will you lack when your mate goes by With a girl who cuts you dead?† Begbie really plays on mens machismos using second person pronouns then making the reader feel as if this is his future. The future not being very good as he says that all your friends will leave you making the reader afraid of being isolated and alone so the poem uses peer pressure making the reader feel as he is the only one not in the army. The effect of peer pressure persuades the reader to join and if thats not enough Begbie carries on to say that the reader will not be wanted by any girls. This scares the reader as it makes him feel socially rejected by all girls. Additionally, Begbies poetic structure of â€Å"Fall-In† is very propagandistic as he incorporates a strong mesmerizing militaristic metre. This gives the poem a constant rhythm giving making the poem sound like a march: â€Å"What will you lack, sonny, what will you lack, When the girls line up the street Shouting their love to the lads to come back† Begbies add to the poem giving it a militaristic metre changes the poem completely. Giving the poem rhyme makes it very catchy and if it wasnt for this then nobody would like it. The poems structure is very simple so rhyme is very good at making it sound good. Rhythm is a key in this poem as it is militaristic and gives it the sense of a march which suits the message perfectly but also a march is very memorable and forceful. The ideas and emotions of the Great War was very ‘propagandandenised until Rupert Brooke wrote idealistic poetry very different from Harold Begbie. Rupert Brooke was an admiral and respected poet. He went to university at Cambridge and was part of the literary greats. Brooke died of sepsis while on his way to battle of Gallipoli. Both poets had different opinions but because they both supported the war there was no real evolution between them. Furthermore Rupert Brooke in his poem â€Å"The Soldier† shows the positives of war like in Begbies poem â€Å"Fall-In† but the poems do so for different reasons. For example â€Å"Fall-In† is propaganda and â€Å"The Soldier† is about a mans passion for patriotism â€Å"IF I should die, think only this of me: That theres some corner of a foreign field That is forever England. There shall be† â€Å"The Soldier† is inspired by Brookes ‘passion for self-sacrifice whereas â€Å"Fall-In† is only fuelled by propaganda and emotional blackmail. Brooke uses phrases like ‘IF I should die, think only this of me in which he is trying to say that he doesnt care if he dies. He writes it as if he knows he will probably die in the war and has accepted it but he thinks if he does then where he dies will turn into a little piece of England. Though both poets show different view points on patriotism there is no specific evolution. In addition Brooke utilizes powerful language portray his idealistic view of England through imagery while Begbie, uses imagery to con the males machismo: â€Å"A body of Englands, breathing English air, Washed by rivers, blest by the suns of home,† Bothe Brooke and Begbie utilize the imagery in there poems to show the benefits of war. Begbie has little imagery but uses it to show what dystopia the reader life will become if he doesnt join the war. Brooke uses pastoral imagery like ‘breathing English air which makes England seem like paradise and something beautiful to protect. Although England isnt very ‘Edenic Brookes use of language makes the reader see a picturesque landscape. Brooke makes Earth seem like a motherland and female characters are usually seen by men as beautiful this adds to the readers picturesque image. Even though Begbie and Brooke utilize imagery for completely different reasons both there imagery is supporting war so there hasnt been any evolution. Moreover, both Brooke and Begbie use poetic structure to give there poem a regular metre but Brooke also uses it to convey his ideals about the nobility of patriotism: â€Å"A pulse in the eternal mind, no less Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;† Rupert Brooke writes his poem in a sonnet form which gives it a rythmic metre just as in â€Å"Fall-In† which has a very regular rhythm and rhyme giving it a materialistic metre. â€Å"Fall-In† has a very easy and simple structure that common men could understand but â€Å"The Soldier† has a very traditional sonnet form which only the higher educated men could understand. Rupert Brooke conveys his righteousness of patriotism by using a metaphor at the beginning of the sestet conveys the epiphany of the poetic voice that that dying for England is good. This powerful metaphor entices the reader to believe Brookes message that patriotism is noble as it makes them feel if they were to die for there country they would become ‘immortal never forgotten by the whole universe. Brooke conveys through his poem how much he is willing self-sacrifice for his nation. Although both poets use different poetic structure for different reasons they are both supporting war so t here is no evolution. During the Great War battles like the Somme in which thousands of soldiers died news was sent to families and survivors told the tale of these battles and its viscerally. Many soldiers wrote poems and so the evolution of the ideas and emotions started. The survivors of horrific battles like the Somme were crucial in order to change the publics ideas and emotions of the Great War. While Rupert Brooke wrote about the nobility of war poets like Wilfred Owen wrote about the truth of war and its horrors. Wilfred Owen was a teacher and private tutor in France before he enlisted in 1915. He was very naà ¯ve and optimistic about war. Until he joined the conflict in 1916 and saw some the worst battles and his relationships with Segfred Sasson helped in his realistic and shocking poetry. Owen died in the battle of the Somme. Consequently, Owen writes about how the sardonic attack on the lies upon which war is founded. This is completely different from Brooke ideals about war and the beauty of willing self-sacrifice: â€Å"My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old lie; Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori.† Brooke wrote about how noble patriotism was and how we all should be ready to die for our country whereas Owen thinks the opposite and writes about how all propaganda poems are a lie and nothing like the real war. Owen is similar to Brooke as he also used to be positive about war. Owen writes at the end of his poem ‘The old lie; Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori. This shows that he was also sucked into believing how righteous and decent war through the poem â€Å"Dulce Et Decorum Est† written by Gerladine Glasgow who wrote a complete lie to what war was really like describing battles with swords when they were noble King Arthur. Glasgow wrote this when the war was at its worst ticking young foolish men into going to war. Owen is mainly attacking her as he takes her title and twists everything round showing how visceral war was and what a lie Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori is. The big difference in ideas between Owen and Brooke really shows that the ideas and emo tions have evolved. Subsequently both Owen and Brooke include different imagery to convey their ideas and emotions. Brooke utilises his imagery to show his idealistic view of England whereas Owen uses imagery to show the true horror of war. â€Å"Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;† Owen writes about how dark war was ‘Men marched asleep as if they were like zombies he also uses a metaphoric parallelism ‘All went lame; all blind to show that all these soldiers have become blind to what they are doing carrying on from how they all seem like zombies. Owen uses good imagery to show how corrupt and vile war was. Brooke uses imagery in his sonnet to show beautiful and England is and how to die for your country is so noble. Brooke portrays war in a picturesque and ‘Edenic image where Owen portrays war as chthonic like hell. This change between the poets shows a big evolution of their ideas and emotions. However, Owen and Brooke both choose to write in sonnet form as the complexity of it makes it stand out. Brooke also uses it as it is traditional and English also does this Owen but uses the traditional view of a sonnet for a subversive purpose. â€Å"The old Lie; Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori† Both Owen and Brooke have a perfect rhythm scheme throughout but Owen makes his last line irregular giving it an uncomfortable gap in the rhythm. Owen does this purposely to make the reader focus their attention on the last line. Owen uses Volta very skilfully to change the actions and emotional impact on the poem. Owen uses a sonnet form for his poem as it adds substance and authority to Owens perspective on war but he also subversives the traditional use of a sonnet for his on purpose. As Owen changes the traditional view of sonnet form he shows that there has been a big evolution in ideas and emotions during the first World War. In conclusion the evolution of emotions and ideas of the great world war was like a rollercoaster ride. In 1914 lots of propaganda was used to get men to go to war. It was done through posters and poems like â€Å"Fall-In† which all played with the males sense of machismo. Also in 1914 Rupert Brooke wrote â€Å"The Soldier† which was also used by the media as propaganda but one mans love his country. Even though he went to war he didnt actually fight as he died from lead poisoning on his way to war. In 1914 as nobody had actually been to war and come back people believed the propaganda and thought it was good and noble. Wilfred Owen also wrote a poem before going to war about how righteous it will be. 1917 people started to find out the truth about war and how all the propaganda was a lie. One of the first poems to do this was by Wilfred Owen â€Å"DULCE ET DECORUM EST† in which he writes about the truth of war and chthonic it is. During 1914 most peoples ideas o f war was influenced by propaganda and emotions were good about war. In 1917 lots of poets who went to war started writing the truth of how it really is and so the peoples ideas of war was the complete opposite from 1914 and their emotions to it was hate and anger. Until 1917 people had the same emotions and ideas of war as in 1914 it was only until people were being told the truth from the men fighting did their views change.

Self Charging Cellphones Using Piezoelectric Zno Nanowires Engineering Essay

Self Charging Cellphones Using Piezoelectric Zno Nanowires Engineering Essay This paper aims at the transformation of mechanical energy, sound energy and various kinds of disturbances to electrical energy using piezoelectric materials. Using piezoelectric materials it is easily possible to convert any kind of mechanical stress to electrical energy and vice versa .Thus the sound produced during the usage of devices like cellphones can be converted to electrical energy and thus can be utilized for recharging the device. This paper presents a model of piezoelectric ZnO nanowire transducer for a gadget like mobile phone prototype of the power scavenging circuit, and the overall circuit for charging the mobile battery using the generated energy. INDEX TERMS : Charge generation, Diaphragm type , PVDF copolymer ,piezoelectric polymer , zinc oxide nanoparticle , Key depressions, Piezoelectric effect. INTRODUCTION A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone and a hand phone) is a device that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator, allowing access to the public telephone network.A mobile phone uses a battery which serves as a power source for phone functions. The battery basically has one of the most important considerations when choosing a mobile phone.The basic cellphone batteries used are Lithium ion batteries which are of pouch format .These batteries are basically soft type with flat body.The talk-time battery time for a basic cellphone is considered to be six hours. Thus this short lifetime causes problem in case of battery rundown when there is no charging point available or during an important phone call. This problem of battery life in a mobile phone can be solved by using the unused power existing in form of sound ,vibration ,human activities, structures and environmental sources. Among these, one of the promising sources of recovering energy is from the vibrations generated by the key depressions of any keypad integrated device such as a mobile phone. Primarily, the selection of energy harvester as compared to other alternatives such as battery depends on two main factors, cost effectiveness and reliability. Conversion of mechanical low frequency stress into electrical energy is obtained through the direct piezoelectric effect, using a rectifier and DC-DC converter circuit to store the generated electrical energy. There are three primary steps in power generation: (a) trapping mechanical AC stress from available source. (b) Converting the mechanical energy to electrical energy using piezoelectric transducer. (c) Processing and storing the generated electrical energy. The mechanical output can be in the form of burst or continuous signal depending on the cyclic mechanical amplifier assembly. Depending on the frequency and amplitude of mechanical stress, one can design the required transducer, its dimensions, vibration mode and desired piezoelectric material. The energy generated is proportional to frequency and strain and higher energy can be obtained by operating at the resonance of the system. PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT The idea of this paper is to trap the vibrations of sound and other mechanical vibrations in a cellphone and use it to recharge the cellphone. Thus this creates a easier energy harvesting method. A conventional piezoelectric ceramic that is composed of a perovskite ceramic crystals, which consist of a small, tetravalent metal ion, usually of titanium or zirconium mineral, in an arrangement of lattice of larger, divalent lead or barium metal ions, and O2- ions (Figure 1). Under such arrangements they attain tetragonal or rhombohedral symmetry on the crystals. Individual crystal has a dipole moment. Refer Figure 1 b. Preparation of piezoelectric ceramicinvolves the following steps. The required proportions of Fine PZT powders of the component metal oxides are mixed. Then, it is heated to form a uniform powder. Now the piezo powder is mixed with an organic binder to get structural elements of desired shape (discs, rods, plates, etc.). The mixture is exposed to fire for a specific time and temperature program. It shapes the piezo powder particles and attains a dense crystalline structure. Finally the elements are cooled, then shaped or trimmed to various specifications, and electrodes are applied to the appropriate surfaces. Fig (1a) NOTE: Above the Curie point which is the critical temperature, the perovskite crystal in the fired ceramic element acquires a simple cubic symmetry with no dipole moment (Figure 1a).Below the Curie point, each crystal exihibits tetragonal or rhombohedral symmetry with a dipole moment (Figure 1b). Adjacent dipoles that are connected form regions of local alignment are called domains. This gives a net dipole moment to the domain, and thus a net polarization. The direction of polarization among all the adjacent domains is random, so the ceramic element has zero overall polarization (Figure 1a). Figure(1.b) CRYSTAL STRUCRURE PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC The alignment of the domains is done by exposing them to a stronger and direct current electric field,at a temperature slightly below the Curie point (Figure:2b). Through this special polarizing treatment, domains that are aligned closer with the electric field expand at the expense of unaligned domains, and the element lengthens in the direction of the field. When the electric field is withdrawn, nearly all the dipoles are locked into a configuration of closer alignment (Figure:2c). The element now is said to have permanent polarization, the permanent polarization, and is permanently elongated. Fig(2) POLARIZING OR POLLING A PIEZO CRYSTAL The tension produced by the mechanical compression on a poled piezoelectric ceramic element alters the dipole moment due to which a voltage is created. voltage of the same polarity as that of the poling voltageis generated by the compression produced along the direction of polarization, or tension perpendicular to the direction of polarization. Tension opposite to the direction of polarization, or compression parallel to the direction of polarization, generates a voltage with polarity opposite that of the poling voltage i.e., Disk is stretched. These actions are called generator actions .The ceramic element converts the mechanical energy (due to compression / tension) into electrical energy. This action is used in fuel-igniting devices, solid state batteries, force-sensing devices, and many other products. Values for compressive stress and the voltage (or field strength) generated by applying stress to a piezoelectric ceramic element are linearly proportional up to a material-specifi c stress. And also true for applied voltage and generated strain. fig (3): The piezoelectric materials are advantageous in that they do not rely on external power sources (e.g., batteries or alternating current (AC) power) for continued operations, unlike strain gages  ¬Ã‚ ber optics , wireless sensor nodes, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices , and other types of sensing systems. Unfortunately, PZT and PVDF suffer from fundamental limitations intrinsic to their material. Although piezo-ceramic PZT transducers possess high piezoelectricity and d33 piezoelectric constants approximately 200-400 pC N-1 , they are extremely brittle, have high loss factors, and are characterized by highly hysteretic behavior . On the other hand, piezoelectric polymers such as PVDF and PVDF-copolymers are  ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡exible, conformable, and can be fabricated to different sizes and thicknesses . However, they possess considerably lower piezoelectric constants are compared to PZTs (10 pC N-1) and require intricate mechanical stretching to enhance their bulk  ¬Ã‚ lm piezo-electricity. Furthermore, both PVDF  ¬Ã‚ lms and PZTs require high-voltage poling so as to enhance their piezo-electricity. Thus, in order to use piezoelectric transducers for sensing applications in complex laboratory and  ¬Ã‚ eld environments, it is desirable for them to simultaneously possess high piezoelectricity and excellent mechanical properties. On the other hand, the nanotechnology domain offers a diverse suite of new materials and composite fabrication methodologies for high-performance piezoelectrics . Among the plethora of nanomaterials, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (e.g., nanowires, nanosprings, and nanoparticles, among others) can be readily synthesized and exhibit inherent piezoelectricity . BLOCK DIAGRAM The basic block diagram of the proposed model is shown in Fig. below. It consists of 3 main blocks, (a) piezoelectric power generation (b) rectification (c) storage of DC voltage. AC voltage is generated from the piezoelectric material which is rectified by the rectification block and then it is stored in a storage device such as a battery. Fig (4):BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION (PROTOTYPE MODEL OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR MOBILE PHONES ) A diaphragm assembly comprises at least two piezoelectric diaphragm members arranged in a stacking direction. An interface layer is situated between adjacent piezoelectric diaphragm members. The interface layer in the stacking direction is displaceable and incompressible or resilient. The interface layer permits lateral movement of the adjacent piezoelectric diaphragm members relative to the interface layer in a direction perpendicular to the stacking direction. The interface layer can comprise, for example, an incompressible liquid or a semi fluid or a compressible gas. A gasket can be used to seal the substance in the interface layer if necessary. Fig. 5. Basic model of diaphragm type piezoelectricity generation. 1. Electrodes 2. Piezoelectric material (PVDF) 3. SiO2 4. n-Si 5. Hole for the central part of film to deform itself CIRCUITRY The figure illustrates the overall circuit diagram of the entire process. The rectifier shown in the Fig maybe either a full wave rectification circuit or a half wave rectification circuit based on the combination of diodes or a voltage double rectifier. Since a diode is being used in the rectifier, a p-n junction diode or a Schottky diode can be used. The Schottky diode has a threshold voltage which is lesser than that of a p-n junction diode. For example, if the diode is formed on a silicon substrate, a p-n diode may have a threshold voltage of approximately 0.065 volts while the threshold voltage of a Schottky diode is approximately 0.30 volts. Accordingly, the uses of Schottky diode instead of p-n diode will reduce the power consumption required for rectification and will effectively increase the electrical charge available for accumulation by the capacitor. When the electromotive force in the piezoelectricity generation section is small, a Schottky diode having a low rising volt age is more preferable. The bridge rectifier section provides rectification of the AC voltage generated by the piezoelectric section. By arranging the rectification section on a monolithic n-Si substrate, it is possible to form a very compact rectification section. A typical diode can rectify an alternating current-that is, it is able to block part of the current so that it will pass through the diode in only one direction. However, in blocking part of the current, the diode reduces the amount of electric power the current can provide. A full-wave rectifier is able to rectify an alternating current without blocking any part of it. The voltage between two points in an AC circuit regularly changes from positive to negative and back again. In the full-wave rectifier shown in Fig the positive and negative halves of the current are handled by different pairs of diodes. The output signal produced by the full-wave rectifier is a DC voltage, but it pulsates. To be useful, this signal must be smoothed out to produce a constant voltage at the output. A simple circuit for filtering the signal is one in which a capacitor is in parallel with the output. With this arrangement, the capacitor becomes charged as the voltage of the signal produced by the rectifier increases. As soon as the voltage begins to drop, the capacitor begins to discharge, maintaining the current in the output. This discharge continues until the increasing voltage of the next pulse again equals the voltage across the capacitor. The rectified voltage is stored into a storage capacitor as shown in Fig., which gets charged upto a pre-decided value, at which the switch closes and the capacitor discharges through the storage device or the battery. In this way the energy can be stored in the capacitor, and can be discharged when required . Fig 6:Circuit diagram of the whole process. RESULTS The material used for the current application is a PZT with 1.5 Mpa lateral stress operating at 15Hz. The output power produced is 1.2W. The energy/power density is 6mW/cm3.The output voltage is 9V [8]. The volume of the material used is 0.2cm3. This voltage can be used to produce the required amount of charge after being processed. CONCLUSION The design of the proposed energy conservation system for mobile phones and has been presented in this paper. The design helps to provide easy energy harvesting technique for mobile phones.The design presented here will be quite effective in providing an alternate means of power supply for the mentioned devices during emergency.The design is improved by implementing nanowires .The implementation of nanowires reduces the size of the system and also improves the efficiency on the other hand increases the cost of the system.Thus this design converts the vibrartion due to sound and key depression into electrical energy to recharge the mobile phones.