Friday, May 31, 2019
Capital Punishment What type of society kills its own the great unwashed? The American cultures ethical motive have accepted the death penalty as a sound punishment. However, who gives us the power to determine when someones life should end. People who complete former(a)s should be punished and pay the price of their crime, but not killed. Our society feels so strongly that murder is wrong and criminals should be killed. In actuality, we are committing the like horrid deed. Capital punishment is wrong for many reasons. Several states in our country have adopted the death penalty as a reasonable act. However, there has been no dramatic decline in violence among these states and others. Proving capital punishment does not deter crime. People are still killing and committing other horrible acts of crime. Another reasons the he death penalty is wrong is that it does not prove to be an effective punishment. Some criminals may look as demise as a way out. They would rather die than sp end the rest of their lives in prison. Also it does not provide peace, justice, or happiness for a dupe or their family. Robert Willies raped Debbie Morris and was later killed by lethal injection. Debbie Morris found no peace in Willies death. Justice didnt do anything to heal me. Forgiveness did. ( papa Man Walking The Victim Who Survived Debbie Morris and Gregg Lewis) A death of a criminal will not erase the past or make a dupes life complete. Another negative of capital punishment is the high speak to. Many dollars are spent during the legal cases and for things such as providing witnesses. Many people who are for the death penalty believe it costs more money to house a criminal in jail. That is wrong, if we can abolish the luxuries many inmates have, the cost is not as high. That way, a prisoner will the way he should live. Above all, capital punishment is morally wrong. A society that is so juicy and powerful should not kill each other. We have not been given the power to ki ll someone.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Just another insane Woman on the molding of term In Woman on the edge of Time, by Marge Piercy, a middle aged Chi sessa woman from New York drives out that she a can publish with the future. She nonpluss herself able to be in more than one time. She is, as far as we know, the first to be able to do this. on that point were others, besides they whole closed themselves off, thinking themselves insane when the voices from the future began to speak. Connies connection was probably simpler beca drug abuse of the similarities between the world in which she lived now (in the mental hospital) and the world of the future. The societal systems of the 2 worlds are very similar. If you exclude the doctors of the mental hospital, all are equal. Each screen can be a different village, with different cultures and political systems. Connie moves from ward to ward in her time as she moves from town to town in Lucientes time. In each ward (as in each village) she learns something new. In the first, she gives up and accepts. In the second she survives and struggles to keep her sanity. In the third she learns the necessity of the fight. Each ward has something new to experience. In each village, she learns a new conceit/ impression/truth about the way her world (outside the hospital) really is instead of how she sees it. In the mental ward, there is no economic system. Sure, money exists, but it doesnt be intimate from inside the ward. It is an alien thing a luxury as are all of the others. The wards that Connie lives in are all filled with their own luxuries. In one, you find card tables and cards, puzzles and chairs. In another ward there are separate rooms and bathrooms with doors, all of which are shared by the general commonplace (the patients). There is no special treatment. Who ever wants to use the cards or the puzzles can. Almost like the dresses/costumes that are rented from the library in Mattapoisett time. There, we use bicycles as we find them. wh atever bike not in use, I can use. (p 364). If the cards arent being used buy someone else, you have every refine to use them. People are just as free. Relationships in the future are a bit more open than those that Connie has had.Just another Crazy Woman on the edge of Time Woman on the edge of Time EssaysJust another Crazy Woman on the edge of Time In Woman on the edge of Time, by Marge Piercy, a middle aged Chicana woman from New York finds out that she a can communicate with the future. She finds herself able to be in more than one time. She is, as far as we know, the first to be able to do this. There were others, but they all closed themselves off, thinking themselves insane when the voices from the future began to speak. Connies connection was probably simpler because of the similarities between the world in which she lived now (in the mental hospital) and the world of the future. The societal systems of the two worlds are very similar. If you exclude the doctors of the mental hospital, all are equal. Each ward can be a different village, with different cultures and governmental systems. Connie moves from ward to ward in her time as she moves from town to town in Lucientes time. In each ward (as in each village) she learns something new. In the first, she gives up and accepts. In the second she survives and struggles to keep her sanity. In the third she learns the necessity of the fight. Each ward has something new to experience. In each village, she learns a new idea/concept/truth about the way her world (outside the hospital) really is instead of how she sees it. In the mental ward, there is no economic system. Sure, money exists, but it doesnt come from inside the ward. It is an alien thing a luxury as are all of the others. The wards that Connie lives in are all filled with their own luxuries. In one, you find card tables and cards, puzzles and chairs. In another ward there are separate rooms and bathrooms with doors, all of which are shar ed by the general public (the patients). There is no special treatment. Who ever wants to use the cards or the puzzles can. Almost like the dresses/costumes that are rented from the library in Mattapoisett time. There, we use bicycles as we find them. Any bike not in use, I can use. (p 364). If the cards arent being used buy someone else, you have every right to use them. People are just as free. Relationships in the future are a bit more open than those that Connie has had.
The capital of Massachusetts Massacre is considered by many historians to be the first battle of the Revolutionary War. The fatal incident happened on butt 5 of 1770. The butchery resulted in the death of five colonists. British troops in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were there to stop demonstrations against the Townshend Acts and keep order, but instead they raise outrage. The British soldiers and citizens brawled in streets and fought in bars. &8220The citizens viewed the British soldiers as potential oppressors, competitors for jobs, and a treat to social mores (Mahin 1). A defiant anti-British fever was lingering among the townspeople.There ar three major things that led to the Boston Massacre First was the growing mistrust among the British soldiers and Americans. There were a number of other incidents were the British clashed with the patriots and their supporters. man-to-man soldiers were beaten on street corners and soldiers abused unarmed civilians. In all the America ns in Boston made it clear that the British soldiers were unwanted.The second reason is jolly odd. The removal of two out of four regiments meant there were to inadequate amounts of soldiers to keep the peace. There were enough on the other hand to remind the patriots of the great British military.The last reason would be the revolt of the Townshend Acts. The patriots and Americans did not agree and strife with the British soldiers over it. The Act built tension between the two. (Griswold 23)On March 5, 1770 the dreadful day came. A mob of people went in front of the Customs Office in Boston Massachusetts and started to throw stuff and turn over insults at the soldiers. As a result to this so-called harassment the soldiers ejectd on the crowd. The first to die was a black man named Crispus Attucks. He was a native of Frainghan, Massachusetts. He escaped from slavery in 1750 and had become a sailor. Crispus Attucks is considered the first martyr of the American Independence (Mahin 1). The four others who died were Samuel gray, a rope maker James Caldwell, a sailor Samuel Maverick, a seventeen year old apprentice and Patrick Carr, a leather worker and Irish immigrant. All in which were unarmed and brutally murdered. The soldiers killed three, mortally wounded two others, and wounded six. How much ha... ...at were stationed in Boston were guilty for many other crimes. I cipher either the soldiers should crap been guilty for firing without an order or that Preston should have been guilty for giving the order to fire. According to Liesenfelt, the eight men said they were following Preston orders and should be try at one time (1). So the soldiers are saying they were following orders which means Preston is guilty. Also three black witnesses gave testimony that they did hear an order to fire by Preston. Then again a merchant said he did not hear an order. Either way the soldiers and/or Preston should have been guilty. I think it a lot easier to miss something said than to be hearing things. So the evidence is there that Preston gave an order to fire. I feel the verdict of the trial of the Boston Massacre should have been &8220guilty. The victims were unarmed and brutally murdered. I soldier enraged the citizens and were guilty of many other crimes. The order to fire give from Preston proves he&8217s guilty of the crime of manslaughter. My conclusion is that the soldiers and/or Preston are guilty. &8220Half a pale of blood had been spilled into he snow (Mahin 2).
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
There are many types of parents in the world today. The types of parents could be classified in many different categories. I believe there are three types of parents today the advisers, the Helicopters, and the Drill Sergeants. In this essay, I will dissertate and explain each of these types of parents. I will also discuss the type of parent I believe I am, and how my parenting style may affect my children in the future. The Consultant Parents is a loving and logical parent that provides guidance and consultant services for children. They provide messages of private worth and strength and rarely mention responsibilities. The Consultant Parents demonstrates how to take care of self and be responsible. They share personal feelings about their own performance and responsibilities with their child. The Consultant Parents provides and helps their child explore alternatives and then allows the child to begin his/her own decision. They provide the child with a time frame to complete their responsibilities. The Consultant Parents often uses lots of actions and very few words. They allow their child to populate lifes natural consequences and allow them to serve as the teacher. The Helicopter Parents hovers over their children and rescues them from the hostile world in which they live. They provide the messages of weakness and low personal worth. The Helicopter Parents tends to make excuses for the child, but complains about the childs mishandles responsibilities. They take on their childs responsibilities and protect the child from any possible electronegative feelings. The Helicopter Parents will make decisions for the child and provides no structure, but complains to the child saying, After all Ive done for you The Helicop... ...g or almost doing and their parents do not do things for them that satisfy their own needs rather than the needs of the child. Therefore, in conclusion, there may be many types and styles of parenting today, my classificatio ns for parenting types are three categories the Consultants, the Helicopters, and the Drill Sergeants. individually of these three parenting styles has their positive and negative aspects. I choose to incorporate a mixture of each style in the parenting and raising of my children. My style of parenting seems to be running(a) very well thus far. I will have to continue in my parenting life and see how my parenting style will affect my children in their futures. whole works CitedBanks, E. (2014). Toddler Discipline - The Parents Guide To Toddler Discipline. Speedy Publishing.Levine, M. (2012, August 4). The New York Times. Raising Successful Children.
Essay on Earths final solution and The Birthmark   Hawthorne knew that all men are defective. Earths Holocaust is his almost striking statement of the theme, but every story and novel is based on that premise. Those who thin human imperfection in their planning become, like Aylmer of The Birthmark, destroyers rather than creators. From his knowledge of universal depravity came and not as paradoxically as it may earnm a humility and a sense of social solidarity in any case often lacking in our young critics of society. The society with which he was concerned was a wider society. As we have noted, his people are often salve through revel for hotshot other person. The heart is touched by lovemaking, bringing warmth, or reality. But the saved one does not then withdraw with his loved one in a society of the elect he does not join a take over Farm or a commune. He returns to the larger society, to what Lewis calls the tribe. He is defective and in stop-as it is defecti ve and incomplete he needs it as it needs him. Thus love unites Phoebe and Holgrave, but also serves the larger social decide of uniting two warring families, displacing hate by love and cleansing a cursed house. adore for Clifford brings Hepzibah out of destructive pride and isolation into intercourse with the world. Hester is saved at the end not by the consecration of its own she once thought blessed her pith with Dimmesdale, not by escape into ... ...ch somehow we all bear out complicity, and with both joy and trouble intensifed by love, linking us to others who share in the human condition.           With such distinctions, we can hardly call Hawthorne a true and complete hippy. Neither can we deny that he shared the hippies aversions and the most essential of their desires. We can discern him as relevant the word is useful if overworked even to the hippie generation. To do so we need those qualities in which he was strongest humility to accept as eq uals and as like ourselves people of all classes, ages, and times, and historical imagination to see essential likeness of one time to another beneath their superficial differences.  Essay on Earths Holocaust and The Birthmark -- Birthmark Essays Essay on Earths Holocaust and The Birthmark   Hawthorne knew that all men are defective. Earths Holocaust is his most striking statement of the theme, but every story and novel is based on that premise. Those who ignore human imperfection in their planning become, like Aylmer of The Birthmark, destroyers rather than creators. From his knowledge of universal depravity came and not as paradoxically as it may await a humility and a sense of social solidarity too often lacking in our young critics of society. The society with which he was concerned was a wider society. As we have noted, his people are often saved through love for one other person. The heart is touched by love, bringing warmth, or reality. But the sa ved one does not then withdraw with his loved one in a society of the elect he does not join a Brook Farm or a commune. He returns to the larger society, to what Lewis calls the tribe. He is defective and incomplete-as it is defective and incomplete he needs it as it needs him. Thus love unites Phoebe and Holgrave, but also serves the larger social purpose of uniting two warring families, displacing hate by love and cleansing a cursed house. Love for Clifford brings Hepzibah out of destructive pride and isolation into intercourse with the world. Hester is saved at the end not by the consecration of its own she once thought blessed her union with Dimmesdale, not by escape into ... ...ch somehow we all bear complicity, and with both joy and trouble intensifed by love, linking us to others who share in the human condition.           With such distinctions, we can hardly call Hawthorne a true and complete hippie. Neither can we deny that he shared the hippies avers ions and the most essential of their desires. We can see him as relevant the word is useful if overworked even to the hippie generation. To do so we need those qualities in which he was strongest humility to accept as equals and as like ourselves people of all classes, ages, and times, and historical imagination to see essential likeness of one time to another beneath their superficial differences.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The economies of Cuba and Puerto Rico are very similar during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. As Spain colonize these two islands in the 16th century under the idea that gold was abundant. Thus in turn the islands became a safe port for Spain and her vessels. It also tack out to be a huge migration from the Spain to the islands, because everyone was set to search for gold. . This turned out to be short lived as the mining of gold peaked in 1517 till 1819. By Spain using Cuba and Puerto Rico for mining gold they needed slave laborers as the local Indians. The Indians soon became unsatisfied with their unused conditions of living, they became hostile and some(prenominal) not able to cope with being slaves committed suicide and genocide. By 1540 1550 silver was discovered in Mexico and Peru. As Spain found its new source of income in Mexico and Peru, it left Cuba and Puerto Rico to literally fend for themselves. By the 1590s their economy began to prosper by cattle breeding an d farming as this come before to new jobs on the islands. This new slow and uneven growth led supplies to be more expensive.By the 17th century the cabildos began to govern migration, basically they stopped migration. The Spanish government implemented regulation and restrictions, which in demand increase prices and taxes. As a result, many began to use the black market in order to grease ones palms blackened. At this time agriculture also developed and farming expanded with sugar, coffee and tobacco crops. These new crops also served to encourage new settlements. No overnight a remote military outpost, food shortages and inflated prices worsened. Supplies did not increase and money was not sent from Spain. The cost of goods did not decline but contraband increased. In the 18th Century, the English occupy Cuba in 1762 for 10 months, as it helped Cuba to see that they could be with better leadership and if they get the attention they needed. This occupation lead to free trade wit h England and the American Colonies, in turn it abolished trade tax. Vendors from England arrived offering Cuba consumer goods and industrial items. The ports were open to maritime traffic, which increased markets and increased demands. The new markets also increased prices and stimulated sugar and tobacco production in the absence of Spain. Also in 1797 the English invaded Puerto Rico, which lead to the acquisition of Trinidad.
The economies of Cuba and Puerto Rico are very similar during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. As Spain colonized these two islands in the 16th century under the root that meretricious was abundant. Thus in turn the islands became a safe port for Spain and her vessels. It also set out to be a huge migration from the Spain to the islands, because everyone was set to await for gold. . This turned out to be short lived as the mining of gold peaked in 1517 till 1819. By Spain using Cuba and Puerto Rico for mining gold they needed slave laborers as the local Indians. The Indians soon became unsatisfied with their new conditions of living, they became hostile and many not able to cope with being slaves committed suicide and genocide. By 1540 1550 silver was discovered in Mexico and Peru. As Spain found its new source of income in Mexico and Peru, it left Cuba and Puerto Rico to literally fend for themselves. By the 1590s their economy began to prosper by cattle breeding and terra firma as this lead to new jobs on the islands. This new slow and uneven growth conduct supplies to be more expensive.By the 17th century the cabildos began to govern migration, basically they stopped migration. The Spanish government implemented regulation and restrictions, which in demand increase prices and taxes. As a result, many began to use the black market in order to purchase contraband. At this time agriculture also developed and farming expanded with sugar, coffee and tobacco crops. These new crops also served to encourage new settlements. No longer a remote military outpost, food shortages and inflated prices worsened. Supplies did not increase and money was not sent from Spain. The cost of goods did not decline but contraband increased. In the 18th Century, the English occupy Cuba in 1762 for 10 months, as it helped Cuba to see that they could be with better leadership and if they get the attention they needed. This occupation lead to free vocation with England and th e American Colonies, in turn it abolished trade tax. Vendors from England arrived offering Cuba consumer goods and industrial items. The ports were open to maritime traffic, which increased markets and increased demands. The new markets also increased prices and stimulated sugar and tobacco production in the absence of Spain. Also in 1797 the English invaded Puerto Rico, which lead to the acquisition of Trinidad.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Dillards essay An American Childhood relives a moment in the authors past which she could not forget as the particular event stirs a certain kind of awareness within her something that she still railcarries and that continues to affect her even as an adult. It is the idea of carrying through a quarrel or task that she is facing at the moment with fervor and conviction, of forgetting everything for the sake of the goal however little or even stupid it might front to others.This theme is put into words when the author describes how during the chase he realizes an immense discovery, pounding into my hot head with every sliding, joyous step, that this ordinary adult on the face of it knew what I thought only children who trained at football know that you have to fling yourself at what youre doing. You have to point yourself, forget yourself, aim, come down (par. 12). In narrating his experience, Dillard uses several techniques, the most obvious of which is when she compares a genera l event from his childhood (that of acting ball) to a specific one (an incident which happened one wintertime when he was seven years old). The general event is supposed to provide the point of reflection to the specific event so that the reader would understand the limit to which the specific event affected her later in life.The lessons, the author says, which she learned from being chased relentlessly by an adult is very much same the lessons she learned from playing ball giving ones all without regard for everything else including the question as to whether the pursuit is worth it or not. The exhilaration of animate the moment and pouring all of ones energy same that moment is already the essence of existence. Facing defeat doesnt even matter. She thinks that grown-ups do not understand this idea therefore she is surprised when the man makes her see that even grown-ups could think and act like they children, too.Although making the connection between the 2 separate scenes creates a profound effect upon the reading of the essay, Dillards engaging writing style is the most effective technique which makes the piece interesting to read. thither are only two scenes (on playing ball as a kid and the chase between the kids and the adult after the former throw a snowball on the latters windshield) but the narrative is very detailed from the names of the authors childhood friends to the color and model of the car which they hit with a snowball.The emotions of every moment are well-described. The short sentences approximate the breathless quality of the chase. Even the quality of a childs fancy is captured by the author as she muses on the possibility of keeping up the run until Panama. The introductory paragraph is a description active how to play ball, the strategies of playing it best, and the need to give ones all in every task be it in throwing the ball or guarding the bases.It is simply descriptive and does not give a clue that the forgo paragraphs wo uld be a narrative of the authors experience. This might not hook the reader who prefers narrative texts kind of than philosophical musings. However, the subject of the paragraph, which is about playing a sport, would attract the general reader who, more usually than not, would be a football or baseball enthusiast and thus would understand the idea of giving ones all in the heat of a game.The final paragraph simply recaps the preceding paragraphs. The chase has ended, they have been caught by the adult and lectured upon, and therefore, the story being told has already ended. The preceding paragraphs already finished the story. The final paragraph where the author is musing about the experience, simply wraps up everything. The effect, however, instead of being a redundant ending provides a sense of closure upon the reader and reiterates the main idea that the author would like the reader to grasp.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Discuss the Relationship Between soda pop and toughie. Within this essay I will be exploring the close human relationship between dad and stumblebum. Dada and Punk are two social movements which were employ to express a social change within their measure, through machination, fashion and music. Although the Dada movement was at its peak in 1916 to 1922 and the Punk movement st artworked in the mid 1970s, both show the a a ilk(p) ideologies and techniques to state of wards they work.Throughout the essay I will displacement down each of the movements into certain groups and analyzes the equivalentities between both of them. To understand the developments of both movements, you need to understand the environment in which they were formed. Dada started in 1916, two geezerhood after World War 1 started. World War 1 was a complicated war, involving many countries taking sides due to the scrap between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, the conflict was brought to a head in the batt le of the Somme, France, 1916.This was when many artists, writers and others took refuge in Zurich, Switzerland, which was neutral during the war, many were angry at what was happening to the worldly concern, within the book Dadaism, Huelsenbeck (2004, pg 8) express None of us had any understanding for the courage that is needed to allow oneself to be shot dead for the idea of the nation , they were disgusted by the war and the idea that the nations public would support such violence, and they were frustrated with having no control over what was happening, a similar feeling the spunks had in the 1970s.Dadaism was astir(predicate) rebelling against the war, they trusted to take the control back and the completely way they could was through art, Huelsenbeck (2004 pg 17) quoted DADA means nothing. We want to change the world with nothing, it is easy to gather Dadaist felt the modern world they were now living in was meaningless and so cute to reject all traditions, especially art tradition, so they clear-cut to create non-art which had no meaning to go with the meaningless world, they took some control back. The Punks had a similar attitude, they wanted to take back control of their future.The Punk movement started in the mid 1970s, a reaction against the recession. A recession which affected nearly of the working class, due to strikes, three day weeks and lack of opportunity, very several(predicate) if you compare it to the days of the 1960s, where youth culture exploded on to the scene, free love and England was swinging. Due to the recession the youth of the working class felt failed and disillusioned, a feeling shown in the Sex Pistols song God bring through The pantywaist(1977) Dont be told what you want, Dont be told what you need, Theres no future, no future, No Future for you.The punks felt like they had no voice, no power and no future so they wanted to make a statement, and like Dada, they wanted to take back control and the only way they could do this was through art, music and fashion. chain 1, Dada It come acrossms both movements were angry over the situation they were living in, and people will only live under that strain until an outburst happens, and when society does snap, people will want change. For the two movements they protested, Dada protested against the War and the bourgeois nationalist who they felt was the root of the war, while punks protested against the establishment.The Dadaist, George Grosz once stated that his work was a protest against the world of vernacular destruction, a quote which fits well with the Dadaist more(prenominal)over besides the Punks, they used destruction of tradition as the protest against the destructive world. It is clear to leave that the Punk movement looked up to Dada, just looking at Jamie Reids work and you can Dadas influence by their use of type and the DIY look, same ideologies, there was even a fanzine issue called Dada which compared Punk to Dada, shown in Image 1 on the chastise.The Punks were well known for having left winged views, but really like just about movements had many different political views. The main ideas of the movement was individual freedom and anti-establishment, Dada also had the same ideas to this affect, they believed in freedom, thats why they started in Switzerland, a neutral country, they wanted to create art in their own way without using any of the tradition rules. Other Punks ideas were anti-authoritarianism, DIY ethics, range action, non-conformity and not selling out.All relevant to Dada, but I feel the idea of non conformity Image 2,The Punk Look describes the movements best, the Image 2 best shows how the Punk didnt conform, they use impingement fashion to state who they were and what they stood for, fashion like this in the 1970s scared people, no one had seen fashion like it, the safeguard pins, ripped edges and bondage like clothes was a very violent looking dress sense, but Punk wasnt the onl y movement which use shock tactics, Dada used shock art, well what would have been shock art in the 1900s, About. om (2012) stated, The Dadaists thrust mild obscenities, scatological Image 3, Fountain humour, visual puns and day-after-day objects (renamed as art) into the public eye. , the public still used to traditional art found Dadaism disgusting, a example of this is Marcel Duchamp Foundation, Image 3 on the right, by today standards very normal by the art world but in the 1900s, ready-made art wasnt catch out of, wouldnt been classed as art, and so Duchamp shocked people by suggesting this is art, begging the question what is art? , something which hadnt been questioned in such style. Image 4, God Save The Queen Within both movements shock art was used to state they ideologies, the best two examples I feel show how the movements are similar are, Jamie Reids God Save the Queen, Image 4, one of my personal favourites, also one of the most iconic images of the punk movement, us ed for the Sex Pistols cover God save the Queen, and Marcel Duchamps L. H. O. O. Q , can been seen under image5.These two image show what the movements are about, Marcel Duchamp took one of the most iconic painting and defaced it, not as a joke or because he disliked the painting but he what to state what the Dadaist believed, that traditional art had been exhausted and it was time for a change. Although Duchamp wasnt anti-art but he wanted, and I quote Elger (2004, pg 82) to pose new, previously unasked questions about art. While the shore regions of art had not been explored. , Duchamp used the Mona Lisa as a symbol of traditional art and wanted to deface it to show the art world that he has no respects for traditions, not even for Leonardos untouchable masterpiece. , Elger (2004, pg 82). Image 5, Mona Lisa The same idea was used in Jamie Reids God Save the Queen, (Image 4), Reid took a image of the mogul, which acted as a symbol of the establishment and authority, just like th e Mona Lisa was a symbol for Dada, and Reid deface her by blanking out the eyes and mouth, like a common criminal to make out she, the authority, committing a crime.Just like Dada was anti-art, Punk was anti-design, looking at image 4 you can see the DIY attitude and look allowing amateur designers to create own poster and fanzines, allowing everyone to be free to create what they want, about they own opinions, this is another link to Dada, slightly with the Mona Lisa with Duchamp taking a ready-made image and pencilling on top, but mostly with other Dadaist work with college.The ransom style lettering gives a threat on the queen, and so the design is acting like a threat to authority again showing the Punk anti-establishment ideas and how they want to take down the system, just like the Dadaist wanted to take down the idea of the traditional art system. Within the design Reid uses a union jack for the background, which adds colour to the design but also the iodine was released the weekend of the Queens silver jubilee and so the union jack marks a personal attack at Britain and our tradition, as the Punks saw the queen as the enemy.Dada wasnt the only one who used the Mona Lisa, the Punks used her for a gallery opening, again the image was defaced, with smashed glass and spray paint, like a riot had happened. I believed they used this image not because it was a gallery opening but she was a sign of the wealth and tradition of the art world and the rest of the world to show everyone the Punk movement is here and you cant ignore it, just like Duchamps Mona Lisa. Image 6, Rrose Selavy Image 7, Soo Catwoman Dada and Punk were not only ahead in their art work and ideas, but socially and with the role of women too.When Dada was at its peak the role of women was changing, women were working, the voting movement, the idea of birth control and the decline in the male population, Dada was the perfect time for women to make a stand, seeing as it was a time for change. Even Duchamp appreciated the role of women and their creative role, even to the point where Duchamp dressed as a woman, Rrose Selavy, as seen on the left. Rrose Selavy was used to shock but also show there is no clear boundary between men and women, and when you look to the Punks and the way they dressed, men and womens style was very similar.Image 7 is a photo of Soo Catwoman, she is very iconic to the Punk movement, she was the ultimate Punk. The Punk movement stated by Hickman (2011),The women of punk conceived new ways to interact with their bodies, gender and punk culture as a whole. the role of women in the movement was very equal for the 1970s, it was a great way to show to the world that women had a right and a voice, so shock fashion like Soo Catwoman really stated what the punk women stood for, and the fact they arent these delicate creatures who should be seen and not heard.Image 8, Orgasm filch It was during the Punk movement where female graphic designers were becomin g influential. Linder sterling(prenominal) is a well known punk artist, designing for the Buzzcocks, one of the designs is image 8, like Reid, Sterling uses college techniques and the DIY look to create the cover, sterling (1977) quoted, It was made in aSalfordbedroom, I had a sheet of glass, a scalpel and piles of womens mags. This technique would have been used with most of the punk designer because it adds a raw edge to the design.This DIY techniques was also used with Dada, as seen in image 9, The Art Critic by Raoul Hausmann, you can see the similarities between the two image, both use college and in image 9, the eyes and mouth have been removed again defacing the person. The idea of college was yet enough ascent against the art world because it was a new idea and not done before, the technique was developed due to the war because art supplies were low so they used whatever was around them and this meant college.Image 9, The Art Critic From image 8 you can the techniques use d by many punk artists, within they work they usually think on one figure in which they deface, like in image 8, although the iron may represent the idea of a womans role, as the iron is a symbol of the home and house work, which is a role that has been assigned to women, while the mouths on the nipples suggest a idea of sexuality and this is the only part of the woman which makes people, mainly men, happy.With image 10 Hausmann has removed the eyes and mouth because of this it has removed the humanity of the person like Sterlings cover. as well as with most Punk and Dada work primary colours would be used to make the isolated image stand out and give it more of a contrast and give it more of a harsh, violent look. In summary it is clear to see the relationship between Dada and Punk. The movements had similar backgrounds, similar ideologies and similar techniques when creating their work.The ways they protested against their situation, Dada with anti-art and the Punks with anti-de sign, shows the two movements linked and for Punks it seems they looked up to Dada, just looking at the similarities between Reids college techniques compared to a Dadaism piece like Raoul Hausmanns The Art Critic, you can see the influence. Personally I feel the two go hand in hand, both movements hold an classic place in art history, and with me, I have always loved the Punk movement and learning about Dada has helped me understand the history of art and I feel without Dada we wouldnt have Punk.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Food is a very important aspect in three of import religions in the world, Judaism, Islam and Christianity. In a Jewish cultivation, food is often regarded in feasts or celebration such as the Passover. Jews usually prepare bread, wine, apples, nuts, cinnamon, eggs, lamb, vegetables, and cakes (McGilly, 2005). Islamic culture and Jewish cultures have almost the same type of cuisine and foods prepared especially during the early periods. Milk, lamb, breads, wine, apples, cheese, honey and dates are some of the common Arab foods. On the otherwise hand, Christians are known for their bread and wine.Jerusalem, Egypt, and Middle East are in a desert region where early people lived as shepherds. They are called nomads because they send away from place to place where in that location is plenty of food for their goats and herds of sheep. Wheat and barley were the common crops then used in making bread and cakes. Besides the nomads, there are also agricultural regions where different cro ps are planted. The plants by the early and present Israelites are much the same such as olives, honey, pomegranates, figs, date, grapes and foods and beverages such as breads, cheese, yogurt, roast lamb, milk, and of course, wine.Wine is the most common beverage drank in occasions such as the Passover and wedding. Another major plant is the olive tree which is highly regarded because of its many uses such as oil for cooking, wood for fire, and medicine (Great Feasts of the Bible, 2002). Foods are the main ingredient in Jewish and Christian feasts such as the Passover. Passover is renowned as the salvation of the Israelite slaves in Egypt. During the Passover, unleavened, roasted lamb, and bitter herbs are commonly prepared.Passover is celebrated in other regions as Easter (Christian festival) in the States and Europe. Although celebrated in different dates and regarded as different occasions, they share a theme for both Christian holiday and Christs resurrection. Passover was also celebrated by Jesus Christ as his Last Supper before his death (Great Feasts of the Bible, 2002).REFERENCES Great Feasts of the Bible. (2002). McGilly, J. (2005). Jewish Foods. Retrieved 16 September, 2007, from http//www. ilperetz. org/graduates/joshua_mcgilly. htm
Thursday, May 23, 2019
This paper will look at the Agrarian revolution that occurred in 10th century and the resulting effects on the political, social, cultural and economic conditions in Europe.Agricultural revolution in Europe was a period where there was witness of sustained changes in the commission commonwealth carried out their farming activities. It had to do with change magnitude output of products and general changes in the methods of carrying out agricultural activities on farmland.10th century Europe savage under the Middle ages, an era when agricultural methods of production were more often than not peasantry in nature. Most of the populations during the 10th century Europe were serfs who were employed by other people to work on their farmlands (Chris, par. 2).There was no clear sub-division of land and the main tool farming was the ox drawn plow and the system of farming was the two knowledge base system. This was a system of farming where one field was cultivated while leaving the ot her one fallow so as to reclaim the body politics nutrients. Population growth during these ages was very low. This can be attri plainlyed to the poor methods of farming which led to low yields hence food insecurity.Agricultural revolution came roughly with the overbearing changes in the methods of production. One major indicator of the revolution was by dint of the consolidation of common land that led to introduction of individual ownership of those properties.Thus rights of ownership were created through the abolition of the open field system of cultivation. The plow as the main tool of cultivation underwent redesigning, and also, the two-field crop rotation was changed to a three- field, and hence these served as contributors to the increased food production that occurred.The Agricultural revolution that occurred at this time brought great impacts to the socio-economic conditions of Europe as a whole. One impact was increase in population, mostly in the towns. Individual own ership of land led to many people selling off their lands.The consequences were that there was increase in the number of people without land, but who were working as laborers for the big landowners. Others migrated to towns and thus contributed to rapid population growth.Furthermore adoption of better methods of farming led to increased food production and hence scanty production. This surplus production was then traded for other goods that were lacking. This served as the beginning of exchange of goods and services and also development of trading systems.The agricultural revolution also served as the main cause of change from feudalism to capitalism. Introduction of wage labour whereby landlords entered agreements with workers served as the springboard on which market economy fundamentals were established and exponent over the land which was appropriated by those who controlled it.Developments that resulted from the agricultural revolutions in terms of new towns, migrations and changes in land ownership necessitated changes in the political and cultural system of the people.There were changes from feudalism as the most dominant form of political organization to formation of the nation-state (Adriaan, par. 4). Development of ideas of sovereignty led to establishment of monarchies in countries like France and England which were seen as the rebuke of civilization.Moreover changes in the cultural mentality of the people were witnessed with the spread of renaissance ideas, diffusion of old ideas and the rise of secular attitudes in art, education and politics. (par. 6).ConclusionThe agricultural revolution was a crucial event as far as mankind is concerned. Interactions over time throughout mans history that have brought about inventions and development of mans civilization cannot be said to be complete without reference to the Agrarian revolution.Works CitedAdriaan Verhulst. .Medieval Socio-economic Historiography in Western Europe Towards an Integrated Appro ach. diary of Medieval History. June 1998. Mechelsesteenweg. Antwerp. Belgium. 12 Nov. 2008 http//www.sciencedirect.com/scienceChris, Butler. The agricultural revolution in medieval Europe. The Flow of History.200712 Nov. 2008 http//www.flowofhistory.com/units/west
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The Novel Jasper Jones by Craig Silvey revolves around a young boy named Charlie Bucktin living in the small Australian townsfolks passel of Corrigan in the 1960s. Charlie is exposed to the confronting issues of racial prejudice, in nicety and moral duality. He is challenged to question slump from wrong, has to come to the realization that law doesnt always uphold justice and we as readers be positioned to understand that people are capable of holding two conflicting values and remain in confortable harmony. The ideas are portrayed by Silveys use of narrative conventions that are used to either challenge or reinforce our values, attitudes and beliefs on the issues explored.Our morals and ethics is our sagaciousness of what we believe is right or wrong. Reading this novel we come to realize that the people of Corrigan are hypocrites, cable of holding two conflicting values or beliefs. Jasper Jones does not pass over that he is a thief, a liar, a thug, a truant, hardly despite t his, he says I never stole a thing I dint need and all my life so far, sh*ts bin taken off me, so Im evening the ledger a bit (page 34). My attitude towards stealing is that its wrong, but Jaspers character has challenged this belief and suggests that stealing is okay and passel be justified in this case because he did it to get the things he needs because its never gonna get offered.When Jasper asked Charlie to help him hide the body of Laura Wishart, he was not only asking him to break the law but was making Charlie go against his morals and he had to reconsider what the right thing to do was. He knew that tampering with her body was illegal but he did it anyways to help Jasper stay out of trouble and find the truth of what had happened. Craig is trying to show us that we all hold conflicting views on things and that sometimes we can think one way and act in another. It has made me realize that I too may contradict my own values and positions me to reconsider what I believe to b e right and wrong.Corrigan is a town swamped with lies and injustice. Silvey is expressing this theme through the establishment of characters and p big bucks. His message is that the Law and what seems morally right, doesnt necessarily uphold justice.Jasper Jones has a bad reputation in Corrigan and after his discovery of Lauras body, Charlie argues that they should go to the police but Jasper knows that the rule of law doesnt apply to him. He is the towns scapegoat when an incident occurs and says, We cant tell anyone. Especially the Police they are gonna say it was me. (page 13). When the disappearance of Laura becomes public, Jasper is locked up and bashed by her father the shire President. Throughout the novel Pete Wishart is always referred to by this title. He is supposed to be a public figure and role model but quite hes an abusive drunk that impregnated his daughter and manhandled a child.This misconduct shows how power can be misused and the double standards that exist in society. The romance of Mad Jack Lionel burdened the town of Corrigan. Rumours were spread concerning his involvement with the death of Rosie Jones and he was Jaspers first suspicion as to what had happened to Laura. The lies and suppositions were just heaped upon the stack (page 240). He had been wrongfully accused and blamed for things he did not do and his town turned its back on him. The unjust treatment of Jasper and Jack Lionel shows that people are so quick to judge and make assumptions about others without knowing a thing about them. It reinforces by belief that you shouldnt judge a book by its cover and should get to know the truth about someone before you pass judgement.Multiculturalism, which is familiar to contemporary Australians, was unheard of in the 1960s and the concept of people from other countries and cultural backgrounds enriching in Australian life was a foreign concept. This novel explores the racism behind the discrimination towards those from non-European backgrounds such as Jeffery Lu and his family. Silveys selection of setting, the context of this novel and the surrounding circumstances such as the Vietnam War provides an understanding of the current attitudes that society may have had towards certain ideas. At the time of this novel, many Australians were resentful for having to go over and fight in the war. Charlies best friend Jeffery, who is of Vietnamese background, was subject to discrimination and copped a lot of bullying because of this. A woman whose son had died in the war attacked Jefferys mother, Mrs Lu. She slapped her cup up, right into her chest scalding her skin (page 128).This scene positioned me to feel sorry for Mrs Lu andreinforced by belief that everyone, no matter what race, should be treated with equality. Jeffery is often victimized by other kids, like Warwick Trent the teenage bully of the town, because of his race. Hes the boy whos always been two years bigger and broader than anyone his age (page 57). He and the other boys that Jeffery often encounters at the local oval are intimidated by his intellect and his cricket skills. They try to establish their dominance over Jeffery by using his ethnicity against him and asserting racial comments such as F*ck off, c*nt eyes (page 58) and F*ck off Cong (page 59). The mistreatment of Lu family has shown me the significance of coequality and how damaging racism can be. The message Silvey is trying to convey is that anyone who is perceived to be incompatible or inferior is made to feel as outcasts and unwelcome in society. It has made me reconsider how I should treat others and has helped me develop a greater understanding of why everyone should be treated with respect and equality regardless of their race.Jasper Jones deals with many issues that are prevalent in our modern society. The author uses narrative conventions such as plot, setting and characters to challenge or reinforce my attitudes and values. I come to understand that people ca n hold contradicting values and remain in comfortable harmony. I realize that the law doesnt always uphold justice and am positioned to see the harm discrimination can cause. These are just a fewer of the ways that Craig Silvey has used narrative conventions to influence my point of view on the themes expressed in Jasper Jones.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Deuteron chapter cardinal should be read as a rhetorical or historical schoolbook edition. Though this topic has been widely discussed for m whatsoever years, soulfulness has yet to convince everyone that one way of viewing the text Is correct and the new(prenominal) Incorrect. Through bring out this research paper we pull up s runs discuss the text ready In Deuteron chapter twenty along with surrounding text viewed through both the rhetorical lens as well as the historical lens. The surrounding text that we testament analyze is chapters even and long dozen of Deuteron.Chapter seven discusses the Israelites expectations for separating from the idolatrous nations. Chapter thirteen informs the Israelites what they are supposed to do when enticed to follow false gods by three unalike accounts of influence. In Deuteron chapter seven, God commands the Israelites to practice complete separation from the Idolatrous nations of the Hitters, Geographies, Amorists, Canniest, Pretzels, Helves, and Jubilees-?all of which reside in the Promised Land they are preparing to enter.Although these nations are stronger than Israel, God Insists that he will deliver these nations to the Israelites and they will destroy them completely, make no treaty with them, and destroy them. Following In verse four, God stresses that the Israelites are not to intermarry with any of these nations because doing so would allow them to turn the children of Israelite away from Him to serve other god. In result of such an occasion, Gods anger would drive him to destroy the Israelites.The Israelites were told to basically attack the awe of these nations t the origin by destroying all of their altars and idols because they were the chosen ones to be Gods special possession which they were to treasure. In verses nine and ten, it is stated that God is God and will slip away world God for all eternity to those who love him. However, to those who do not love God he will destroy. The middle of De uteron chapter seven, verses 11-15 talks about how Gods flock are to think the covenant of love He has made with his batch for He will keep the covenant If his deal follow these laws.Up to verse sixteen, this intelligence states that f His heap follow the laws they will be blessed in numerous ways through crops, offspring, livestock, and disease such as what they experienced in Egypt. The closing of chapter seven of Deuteron is used to discuss that the Israelites are not to be intimidated by the strength of the other nations which they are to drive out, but to remember what God had done to Pharaoh in Egypt.God continues to overemphasized that He will deliver all of these nations along with their kings to the Israelites so that they may destroy them and the record of their existence. In the final two verses of his chapter, God instructs the Israelites they are not to covet anything the gods of these nations possess such as the gold and silver and not to bring any of their poss essions Into their own household. In Deuteron chapter thirteen God addresses the destiny of those who practice Idolatry or entice others to practice Idolatry.The chapter begins with God stating that If anyone Is to experience an event that would cause them to feel the urge to worship other gods that the words of that sort to refrain from par taking in the suggestion of worshipping other gods because he very situation is a test from the Lord our God to find out if they love him with all their heart and soul-?the prophet who tried to turn them away from the Lord shall be put to death.Starting in chapter six and continuing through chapter xi God tells his people that even if a family member was to entice them to follow other gods not only were they to be ignored, but they were also to be given over no pity nor be spared, or pitied. This relative, or closest friend was to be immediately put to death by the hand of the family member who was being misled. By doing this, the killed entic er was to river as an example so that such an evil thing would not happen again.Deuteron thirteen closes with a final situation of dealing with the people of a town who are misled into idolatry by wicked man. In this situation, the Israelites are to investigate the situation thoroughly, and if the situation is proven true, they are to kill everyone of that city. The city should become a ruin for the remainder of time and never rebuilt. The possessions of that city were also to be left as ruined and not be nominate in the hands of His people.This chapter is closed with the statement from God hat he will turn from his fierce anger and have compassion on his people if they do as they are told. Deuteron chapter twenty is a series of directions that concern war in general and the process of which the Israelites were to takeover and destroy particular cities. The instruction manual in this chapter are peculiar to Deuteron. As the people of God, Israel was not a warlike nation they wer e rather to abstain from warfare, and as a general blueprint to cultivate the arts of stop.But they had before them at this time the prospect of a serious and protracted conflict before they could occupy the land which God had delegate to them and they might in future years have to go to war to maintain their independence and repel aggression. In view of this, instructions are here given regarding the conducting of military service (Alexander, n. D. ). In verses one through four of this chapter, the Israelites are commanded to refrain from feeling afraid, panicked, or terrified of armies greater than theirs because the God who brought them from Egypt will be with them.Verse four states that the Lord their God will fight for them against their enemies to give them victory. Verses five through nine are accounts in which the officers of the army will inquire for anyone who has built a new house and not yet lived in it, anyone who planted a new vineyard and not yet enjoyed it, anyon e who pledged to a woman and not yet married her, or anyone who is afraid or fainthearted to go home. Following this, verses ten through twenty are directions concerning the taking over of the false nations.When the Israelites march to attack a city that is far from them-?not of a nearby nation-?they are to first offer peace. If the city accepts this offer, the people of he town shall be made servants and work for the Israelites. However, if the town is not willing to surrender, the Israelites were to kill every man in the city, and take the women, children, livestock, and everything else in the city as plunder for themselves. On the other hand, when approaching a nation within the Promised Land, the Israelites are to immediately destroy anything that breathes without offering peace to them first.The Israelites are instructed to do so to avoid being taught to follow their detestable ways of worshipping other gods and sinning against the Lord their God. God then commands His people t o refrain from destroying any result bearing trees in Historical Analysis There are quite a few accounts in these chapters that lead to the idea that the text in Deuteron chapter twenty should be read historically. When the God of Love is commanding his people to extirpate and slaughter living people, there is obviously going to be inclination.The main controversy seems to lie between groups who cannot agree whether the text in Deuteron chapter twenty should be read historically or rhetorically. A sub category of controversy in chapter twenty, noted as Case 1 & Case 2 by biblical scholar Gordon J. Wham, is the discussion of why the nations within the Promised Land were not offered peace before being sunk and the nations outside of the Promised Land were offered peace before being destroyed (Wham, n. D. ). In chapter twenty, why would our God tell his people to annihilate and destroy a nation not leaving anything alive that breathes?Arent humans Gods own creation? When these part icular verses are read independently God does in fact come across as contradicting Himself and failing to practice what He preaches. However, when read in context, we are able to see that God is by no means going against the sixth commandment, Mimi shall not murder, but He is actually sticking to His word Just as He said He would. If we take a look into some of Deuteron chapter twentys surrounding scripture we come across some eye opening information.For example, in Deuteron 79-10 scripture reads, Know thereof that the Lord your God is God he is the faithful God, keeping his covenant of love to a thousand generations of those who love him and keep his commandments. But those ho scorn him will repay to their face by destruction he will not be slow to repay to their face those who hate him. This verse shows us Gods reasoning behind why He wants the Israelites to destroy them. This reference takes away from the sting of the idea that God wants us to kill people, and therefore, allow s us to interpret this text as historical.It is also suggested by Reverend C. Clearance, a biblical scholar, that the reasoning why the nations within the Promised Land were not offered peace before being destroyed is because they had already had their day of grace in Genesis 1 516 ND that they should be overcome by destruction lest they continue to choke off the land (Clearance, n. D. ). Another example is found in Deuteron 13. Biblical scholars Reverend J. Orr, Reverend D. Davies, and Reverend R. M. Edgar point out that in verse 14, which states, then you moldiness inquire, probe and investigate it thoroughly.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Basic analog and digital Branded ones Bosch, AXIS, Mobotix Biggest Taiwan brand Vivotek Check away AXIS and Mobotix trend in each country. Bosch is following up with AXIS and Mobotix. Bosch website is unattackable in technical. Vivotek is strong in hardware. Bosch and Airlive software are good. Analog camera has BNC connector (round connector). Can convert analog to digital? Yes is possible. Cost is 25 USD to 250USD. Can convert to BNC to RJ45 or even to Fibre. Lens affect the viewing tap from 4 MM, 6MM, 8MM, 16MM. Manufacturer is Sharp and Sony. Lens also got differentiate into CMOS and optical lens. Optical lens choose more bandwidth.AXIS has the best CMOS lens and they can make it closer to optical lens. MTBF- Mean time in the lead failures. Our AP is 200,000HRS which is quite safe. Camera also have MTBF timing. Bosch have best datasheet. digital cameras is using RJ45, LAN cable. Digital have both indoor and outdoor. DVR for analog have BNC connector. 16 holes. 1 hole 1 ch annel. DVR is for digital camera. DVR is mostly for soho use up to 16 channels or even 32 channels = 32 digital cameras. 1 camera 1 ip address. DVR we have 1 setup box and 1 harddisk and few buttons for control. Older form of DVR is onsite recording. 2nd generation is with Lan cables so is going via IP.Can record offsite. PTZ cameras locomote Tilt Zoom.. which the lens is optical. NVR network video recording is like a NAS, up to dual central processor power with single GIGBABIT port for connecting high resolution cameras for processing. Can connect up to 254 cameras to 1 NVR (255 ip address for Class C subnet mask). Codec is required for converting the recording for onsite. H. 264 and MPEG file version. For future, people are doing bigger and larger and scalable NVR to increase the number of cameras. Raid is now up to 0 and 1. Next year go out be raid 5 and raid 6. inside have 4 mainframe inside 4U CPU rack with 2 harddisk with redundant power. Software Questions to ask. 1) What is the FRAME per second? FPS. Recording for IP camera is 29FPS is good (for wired). Wireless camera is normally 3 to 5 FPS for viewing. Recording is still 29FPS for wireless. 2) Resolutions. 320 x 320, 480 x 320, 640 x 480, 1024 x 768 etc. higher resolution will consume higher bandwidth. For analog is defined as lines. Eg HD TV has 1080 lines. 3)CODEC file type. For night vision is based on lux. 0. 5 LUX is able to nail already. 1 LUX 40W of light bulbs. IP cameras do not direct standard POE but it take POE+. AXIS strong at indoor Mobotix strong at outdoor Vivotek outdoorsy and indoor Bosch Outdoor
Larrys letter is instrumental in forcing Keller to suck his fault. Discuss (20M) all(a) My Sons a come across by Arthur Miller was staged at the cor unityt theatre In January 1947 and ran for 328 perfor human beingsces. The play was fountainhead constructed and realistic in nature, and it was extremely popular among the audiences. All My Sons started in the middle of things and spends most of the play show the facts of the past so that the audience can listen the last act consequences In the present.The play truly deals with the fate of Joe Keller, an uneducated self-made man who has committed an atrocious act during World War II. The play ends with the suicide of the Joe Keller who repents after being exposed with the content of his son Larrys letter. As mentioned earlier, Joe Keller is an uneducated self-made man who has committed an atrocious act during World War II. Keller has as partner Steve Deever and their factory manufactures cylinder heads for aircrafts. During the war , they assimilate a contract from the army to supply cylinder heads on an urgent basis. hitherto the cylinder heads had hairline cracks in them and Keller is promptly informed by Deever. But Keller asked Deever to get the cylinder heads welded and that he would ake full business of the damaged products. unluckily those damaged cylinder heads cause twenty-one planes to crash killing their pilots. However at the trial Keller denies responsibility and is exonerated, and the blame shifts to Steve Deever who Is Imprisoned. Following that Joe Keller lives In total impunity with his family.However when he is confronted with the content of his son Larrys letter, he is forced to realise his fault. In fact Larrys letter was intend to his fiance Ann, in which he reveals that he was shamed by his fathers involvement In fraud and profiteering. Consequently he committed suicide by allowing his plane to crash. However the content of the letter was kept secret by Ann because of her selfish moti ve to get married to Chris who is Larrys brother. except she did not want to break the symmetry of the home of her would be In laws.But finally the content of the letter is revealed to Kate Keller by Ann because the former is still refusing the union of Ann and Chris. Consequently Ann uses the letter as her trump card to maintain her future union with Chris and the letter forces Kate to fancy to accept Larrys death and her husbands crime of killing twenty one pilots, Moreover Chris Is also made ware of the content of the letter and is unwilling to forgive his father. Consequently Joe Keller is confronted by Chris and based on the content of Larrys letter, Joe keller is compelled to reveal the truth of the case to Chris.Joe Keller tries to justify his acts by arguing that he had worked in the interest of his family. But Chris being an Idealist condemns the act of his father. Finally Joe Keller realises his fault and understands the disastrous implications of his actions. In orde r to escape from guilt and repay for his crime, he commits suicide. To conclude, It can be said that the Larrys letter is indeed of prime importance in making Joe Keller realise his fault, but who unfortunately has a tragic end.BY sachtn051032 My Sons a play by Arthur Miller was staged at the coronet theatre in January 1947 audience can see the last act consequences in the present. The play actually deals take full responsibility of the damaged products. unfortunately those damaged Deever who is imprisoned. Following that Joe Keller lives in total impunity with his forced to realise his fault. In fact Larrys letter was intended to his fiance Ann, in which he reveals that he was shamed by his fathers involvement in fraud and reak the harmony of the home of her would be in laws.But finally the content of the future union with Chris and the letter forces Kate to accept to accept Larrys death and her husbands crime of killing twenty one pilots. Moreover Chris is also made is compelled to reveal the truth of the case to Chris. Joe Keller tries to Justify his acts idealist condemns the act of his father. Finally Joe Keller realises his fault and and repay for his crime, he commits suicide. To conclude, it can be said that the Larrys letter is indeed of prime importance in making Joe Keller realise his fault.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Hurricane Pam Every community is feeld with natural and celluloid hazards that can best be addressed ahead of time by planners working closely with collar management personnel to mitigate the threat and prepare for post-disaster recovery. Hurricane Pam was a simulated draw in impertinently Orleans utilise to evaluate potential losses, improve response plans, and provide better coordination between agencies proactively. Hurricane Pam brought preserve winds of 120 mph, up to 20 inches of rain in parts of southeast Louisiana and storm heap that topped levees in the New Orleans area.This area included 13 parishes in southeast Louisiana-Ascension, Assumption, Jefferson, Lafourche, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. James, St. John, St. Tammany Tangipahoa, and Terrebonne. The storm ca social functiond more than one million residents to evacuate and destroyed 500,000-600,000 buildings. A rough average of 100,000 people did non evacuate before the storm hit due to p overty, illness, or lack of transportation. Of the 100,000 that remained in the city, an estimated 25,000 to 100,000 would die.SLOSH (sea, lake, and overland surges from hurricanes) is used to identify the worst-case scenario of this storm by identifying the highest potential surges from this storm. SLOSH revealed that the levees would fail causing the city to flood and shovel in thousands due to drowning. These generalized assumptions caused tweak managers put their minds and resources into action to devise disaster response for areas much(prenominal) as search and rescue, medical care, sheltering, fly-by-night caparison, school restoration, and debris management.The debris team estimates that Hurricane Pam would result in 30 million cubic yards of debris and 237,000 cubic yards of hazardous waste. Landfills have been identified that have available repositing space and disposal sites for hazardous waste have been located. In the event that Hurricane Pam resulted in more debr is and hazardous waste transportation should also be identified and factored into the plan in case the sign plan is not adequate. Shelter is a main issue for the residents of New Orleans because of the impact of Hurricane Pam.The emergency management teams identified that about 1,000 shelters would be pick outed to house the residents displaced by the storm. About 784 shelters were secured, but 216 were sedate needed. Transportation and partnerships with other states should have been obtained to foster secure the remaining shelters. Funding should have also been secured to help those relocate and possibly reside with family members in other states. The displaced residents would need to reside in temporary vivacious arrangements for up to at least 100 days.Simulations would need to be done to identify the costs for housing the maximum amount of individuals in each shelter for 100 days. The emergency management team would need to meet with local, state, and federal government off icials to identify ways to generate funding for these costs. For example, a hurricane tax or surcharge to help generate resources in the event of a disaster or partnering with companies like Walmart or Target and developing a partnership for supplies. Search and rescue efforts are the key component to deliverance the lives of the individuals that may beSearch and Rescue The search and rescue chemical group developed a transportation plan for getting stranded residents out of harms way. Planners identified lead and support agencies for search and rescue and established a keep in line structure that will include four areas with up to 800 searchers. Medical The medical care group reviewed and compound existing plans. The group determined how to implement existing immunization plans rapidly for tetanus, influenza and other diseases presumable to be present after a major hurricane. The group determined how to re-supply hospitals around the state that would face heavy patient loa ds. The medical action plan includes patient movement details and identifies probable locations, such as state university campuses, where individuals would receive care and then be transported to hospitals, special needs shelters or fixture shelters as necessary. Schools The school group determined that 13,000-15,000 teachers and administrators would be needed to support affected schools. The group declare the role of local school boards and developed strategies for use by local school officials. Staffing strategies include the use of displaced teachers, retired teachers, emergency certified teachers and others eligible for emergency certification. Displaced paraprofessionals would also be recruited to fill essential school positions. The group discussed facility options for increasing student population at undamaged schools and prioritizing repairs to buildings with less damage to assist in normalizing operations The school plan also calls for placement or development of tempo rary schools near temporary housing communities built for hurricane victims.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
MSC756 PROJECT counseling ASSIGNMENT TWO THE PRINCE2 methodological epitome A DETAILED COMPARISON OF RELATIVE STRENGTHS TO THE PMBOK AND APPLICATION TO PROJECT attention AUTHOR KANE WRIGHT STUDENT 400072002 WORD COUNT (LESS prorogue OF CONTENTS, REFERENCES, APPENDICES) 4972 DUE DATE 28 SEPTEMBER 2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION________________________________________________ _____________3 LITERATURE REVIEW______________________________________________________ _3 Background__________________________________________________ _______________3 Methodology_________________________________________________ _________________3 Components__________________________________________________ ________________4 demonstratees___________________________________________________ __________________5 Implementing PRINCE2_____________________________________________________ ___7 ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION__________________________________________________ _7 Comparison___________________________________ _______________ _______________7 Contrast____________________________________________________ _________________8 Strengths___________________________________________________ __________________9 Weaknesses__________________________________________________ ________________12 Recommendation The Application of PRINCE2 and PMBoK in Combination_________13 AUTHORS REFLECTION__________________________________________________ __14 CONCLUSION__________________________________________________ ___________14 REFERENCES__________________________________________________ ____________16 APPENDIX 1 PRINCE2 address MODEL____________________________________18 APPENDIX 2 PMBOK KNOWLEDGE AREAS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES___________________________________________________ _____________19 APPENDIX 3 PRINCE2 METHODOLOGY BENEFITS FOR BUSINESSES_________20 PRINCE2 is extensively used in e veryplace 150 countries around the world and its take up grows daily.It is widely con placementred as the leadi ng spear in pouch oversight, with over 20,000 organisations already advantageing from its pioneering and trusted start Nigel Smith, Chief Executive, procedure of Government Commerce (OGC), United Kingdom ( cognizance Letter 2009) INTRODUCTION Through its evolution over the past three decades, the bemuse perplexity Institutes (PMI) Guide to the draw cargon embody of Knowledge (PMBoK) has become clearly established as the leading methodological analysis for the understanding, analysis and execution of come out precaution glob tot all(a)(prenominal)yy.The increasing need for, and implementation of, take c ar vigilance practices at heart private and public orbit organisations concurrently thus far, has resulted in the emergence of alternate see worry methodologies and frame crops. As an resource option in stock(predicate) to dispatch Managers, the realises in Controlled Environments (PRINCE) methodological analysis has gained signifi derrieret attention and in creased favour for implementation by organisations globally.This newspaper has been prep bed to divulge in occurrence proposition the PRINCE methodological analysis, comparing its features and care fores against those of the PMBoK, and analysing its relative strengths and weaknesses. This report will concomitant the benefits forthcoming to organisations in the activity program of the PRINCE methodology, how this tool cornerstone rough-and-readyly and expeditiously be employed for wander solicitude and recommendations for how organisations can tailor the methodology to maximise their chances for attend success. LITERATURE REVIEW BACKGROUNDThe PRINCE methodology for visualize management was first developed in 1989 by the UK Computer and Tele chats Agency. This governmental agency, now part of the bureau of Government Commerce (OGC), originally developed PRINCE for application in government IT externalises (Langley 2006 p30). The methodology was that revise and refine d in 1996 by a consortium of 150 public and private sector organisations. The revision resulted in the creation of PRINCE2 a methodology with a much broader application to either and all travails, non just IT pictures (Langley, 2003, p50).PRINCE2 has since gone through a number of revisions, the most new of which is PRINCE2 2009 (Science Letter 2009). This methodology has receive increased international interest and attention since its inception and has now experient widespread application across private sector, to become the accepted standard methodology for pick up management inwardly the UK. METHODOLOGY WHAT IS PRINCE2? As a practical tool of public domain, originally developed by government for go through management, limited literature exists on the methodological explanation of PRINCE2s structure, puzzle outes and application.A number of UK governmental publications and leap out Management Professionals (PMPs) however, consider developed summaries and melts to the method which explain the purpose and structure of PRINCE2. Birlouez (2009) draws directly from the PRINCE2 guide to describe the methodology as a extremity- base approach for jump management. It is designed to be a organize method that the forecast Manager can apply to guide the processes and procedures applicable to all considers. COMPONENTSThe OGC have incorporate the PRINCE2 methodology to address eight core voices of chuck management (ILX Group 2009). The crease Case The line of intersection points case endures the driving force within PRINCE2 from the inception of, and end-to-end, the upchuck lifecycle. As Wideman (2002) highlights, the transaction case justifies the attempt of the project in terms of reasons, benefits, cost, magazine and risk and is the base document that shapes the suitability of a project for acceptance.Academics agree (Birlouez 2009, Siegelaub 2006) that the line of merchandise case remains relevant throughout the project lifecycle and ultimately determines whether, through a change to feasibility of the patronage case at a certain point, the project should be terminated. organisation PRINCE2 advocates a clear definition of the project organisation structure, to provide the Project Manager with the staff and imagings to efficiently and in force(p)ly complete the project. PlansPlanning is a core concept emphasised within PRINCE2, providing a localize for the outputs and products to be delivered at various legs in the product lifecycle (Wideman 2002) and ensuring that plans are developed and executed non unless at the strategic aim but also polish to the lower (team) levels (ILX Group 2009). growth- base planning is the detect PRINCE2 technique with which to achieve this and plays the first of three techniques operational to project managers in using PRINCE2 (Birlouez 2009). ControlsSiegelaub (2006) has described the restraints component of PRINCE2 as an firmament targeted to assist decision making. He identifies that the implementation of project control bankers bills visualises products generated meet delineate acceptance criteria, the project is being completed in accordance with time/schedule, cost and resource plans, throughout the project lifecycle, the project and its associated Business Case remain viable, and the project is claimed within an acceptable level of risk.Control of technical work within PRINCE2 is achieved through the authorisation of work packages allocated against individuals or teams. These packages are measured against time, cost and attribute requirements with responsible agents required to report hind end against these through place checkpoints and triggers (Wideman 2009). Management of happen Due to the unpredictable nature of project management and its susceptibility to the influence of environs variables, PRINCE2 advocates the fight of risk management to contain and minimise risk.PRINCE2 offers a risk log and scoring system to avai l this requirement (ILX Group 2009). whole step in a Project Environment Time and cost targets represent only one part of successful project deliverance. Quality is a critical factor in meeting customer requirements and ensuring project performance is achieved. PRINCE2 employs Product Descriptions to establish the minimum standards for project deliverables. Quality reviews and and then represent the second technique procurable for successful project management (Birlouez 2009), as a measure for comparison of planned versus actual performance.Configuration Management Configuration Management is closely linked to attribute within PRINCE2 in that it provides the elbow room for monitoring and managing project deliverables, hence enhancing the project management teams control over the projects assets and products. multifariousness Control PRINCE2 identifies the requirement for a subject matter of assessing range of mountains changes, their impact on project foreplays, requireme nts and outputs, and most importantly, their impact on the Business Case.This component permits project managers to organize informed decisions on the relative value of sphere changes and through the series of circumstantial change control techniques, processes and requests offered by PRINCE2 (ILX Group 2009), determine whether to include them. Change control is the third and final exam technique available to PRINCE2 practitioners. PROCESSES Within the context of the samara components highlighted previously, PRINCE2 identifies a wooden leg process for the conduct and management of a project, analogous to the phases espoused by the PMBoK.These heads focus specifically on the execution of a project, and do non cover in contingent the associated preliminary project management activities associated with spongelike project management functions like staffing or procurement. adjunct 1 is the PRINCE2 Process Model, which provides a graphical representation of the processes involv ed in delivering a project. These processes can be viewed as a structured checklist of how organisations can effectively manage a project. Start-upStarting up a Project is the preliminary step in conducting any project, to enable the fundamental activities required to assess project oversight and viability. The do involves the appointment of project key and team staff and preparation of the project brief, stage plan and the initial (outline) business case (ILX Group 2009) This stage also identifies the Acceptance Criteria for the project, a queer management product that defines measurable requirements of the project (Wideman 2009)Initiation The project initiation stage directly follows project start-up and is predicated on authority to initiate. This stage provides the tools for the holistic development of the Project Plan and through PRINCE2s Project Initiation Document (pelvic inflammatory disease), provides an overview of the critical elements to the project (Siegelaub 2009)(in cluding the Risk, Configuration, Quality and Communication Management Strategies (ILX Group 2009)). Directing a projectThe directing stage is a endless stage which runs throughout the lifecycle of a project. This process is inter-related with all other processes and provides the framework for the decisions required of the Project Board and Project Manager in authorizing and directing the conduct of, and proceedion betwixt, all the other PRINCE2 processes. Controlling a stage Controlling a stage incorporates key activities that guide how the Project Manager manages the specific activities of the project.Through configuration management and change control (Wideman 2002) this stage focuses on the authorisation, assignment and review of work packages, issue and change management and nonindulgent action to ensure severally project stage remains aligned with project objectives and targets. Managing product delivery The product delivery stage focuses specifically on the execution of t he technical requirements of the project. It addresses the work that is to be performed, how it is executed and the delivery of the final outputs on completion.Siegelaub (2009) highlights that the activities within this stage constitute part of PRINCE2s call on Authorisation System. Managing stage boundaries This stage provides the focus for the Project Manager on how to effectively transition between completion of one project stage and commencement of the next, including review and update to the Project Plan and Business Case (ILX Group 2009). This stage is closely linked to the Directing a Project stage, as it provides the input to the Project Board at stage completion for decision on ongoing project viability, and develops the plan for subsequent work stages. closing a project The closing stage of a project effectively terminates the project and transitions righteousness back to the organisation. Termination can be initiated due either to completion of work, or through prematu re termination, where project viability is no longer apparent (Siegelaub 2009). This stage includes the capture and evaluation of lessons learned for organisational learning and final gag law of all project activities. Planning appendix 1 does not reflect Planning within the PRINCE2 Process Model, as this stage (much like the Directing a Project stage), is an over-arching activity that spans the entire lifecycle of the project and is continuous across all stages. Planning identifies the projects deliverables and the associated resources and activities to create them. Planning is closely aligned with all stages, particularly the Initiation stage, as detailed planning must be consistent with the control requirements of the PID (Siegelaub 2009). IMPLEMENTING PRINCE2PRINCE2 identifies that any product will have a lifespan of five phases. Of these phases ( intention, Feasibility, Implementation, Operation and Termination), PRINCE2s methodology and process model specifically operate with in the Implementation phase of the product lifecycle. From this application, it can be seen that PRINCE2 is therefore an implementation methodology as opposed to a more encompassing and holistic project management methodology (Wideman 2002). ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION COMPARISON In order to highlight the differences that exist between PRINCE2 and PMBoK, t is requisite first to draw comparison between the deuce methodologies. PMBoKs processes are effectively grammatical construction blocks, each of which can be categorized into a Process Group and Knowledge Area (Birlouez 2009). Appendix 2 provides an overview of the Project Management Knowledge Areas and processes espoused by the PMBoK. The major noesis areas are Project integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project gentle Resource Management Project Communication Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Management The Project I ntegration Management area acts as a lynchpin for the PMBoK, linking all other areas. Birlouez (2009) uses the development of the Project Management Plan as an example for this, as this document will incorporate all plans from the other knowledge areas (Risk, Communication, Quality, etc). Conceptually, PRINCE2 components can be aligned with and compared against PMBoK Knowledge areas. Siegelaub (2002) has tabulated this comparison PMBoK Knowledge Area PRINCE2 Components Integration Management All processes/components combined Change Control Scope Management Business Case Time Management Plans Cost Management Quality Management Quality Configuration Management Risk Management Risk Communication Management Controls Human Resource Management Organisation (to a limited extent) Procurement Management It is swooning to observe then the similarities between the critical concepts addressed by each methodology. The application of PRINCE2 to project management however, d iffers in backcloth from the PMBoK. From the outset, PRINCE2 does not claim to comprehensively cover the subject of project management. Rather, it is a methodology that is based on the principles of the PMBoK. Siegelaub (2006) highlights that PMBoK specifically calls on the practitioner to apply a project management methodology (as a tool/technique), and PRINCE2 provides one. Viergever (2009) supports this argument, suggesting that PMBoK provides the framework, where PRINCE2 provides the method. CONTRASTAcademic opinion (Birlouez 2009, Siegelaub 2006, Viergever 2009, Wideman 2002) generally prescribes that the PMBoK and PRINCE2 serve antithetical purposes and are not easily comparable. Where PMBoK provides a comprehensive means for teaching the subject of each knowledge area of project management as a discipline, PRINCE2 provides a more detailed approach for the running of a particular project. When examining the process side of project management, PMBoK tends to focus on higher-l evel verbal descriptions kind of than a detailed explanation of processes. PRINCE2 by contrast offers a more detailed explanation of the processes (Viergever 2009). Several authors (Webber 2009, forefront Bon 2006) have highlighted PRINCE2s level of detail within project processes as a major advantage over PMBoK.Assessment from various PMPs and methodology description within the PRINCE2 guide advocate an extensive list of strengths for PRINCE2 as two a stand-alone methodology and in comparison to the PMBoK. Major strengths of the methodology based on public and private sector application have been grouped together into the following areas. STRENGTHS Methodology structure The detailed process model that PRINCE2 offers provides a controlled start, progress and close to projects. The structure of the methodology provides a standardised process for project completion that permits accordance between projects within an organisation. It also provides a framework for delegation and commu nication, and stipulates points for review and flexible decision points against the project plan, business case and risks (Ruleworks, 2009).The processes within permit a stage-by-stage breakdown of work requirements for project managers that goes into greater detail than the five project phases espoused by the PMBoK (Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling and Monitoring, Closing (IT Governance Ltd 2009)), effectively providing a checklist for project managers however as a generic methodology remain flexible enough that activities can be trim to suit the organisation and project (and do not all require rigid application to all projects). The methodology is supported by a well- delineate set of progressive documentation requirements that provide an easy guide to assist the project team. Thirty-three standard management products are available to PRINCE2 practitioners as templates which can be employed as key outputs across the multiple stages (Wideman 2002). The Business Case an d Project plan provide uidance on viability during the start-up phase that is not recognized by the PMBoK, while the PID offers the detailed description of how the project is to be executed. Although the PMBoK has an equivalent document (the Project Charter) the requirement for a substantiated Business Case does not serve as a prerequisite. This commercial-off-the shelf (COTS) methodology is favoured amongst many organisations globally, as it provides significant cost and time savings (in multiple months and thousands of man-hours), compared to the decision to develop and launch a unique methodology for a business and educate staff in its application (Kippenberger 2009). Further benefits to business that the methodologys structure offers are listed at appendix 3.Project organisation and assignment of responsibilities Another strength of PRINCE2 is its identification of management roles rather than jobs, which can then be allocated amongst organisational staff to suit the organisati on. PRINCE2 goes beyond the PMBoK identification of a Project patronize to highlight the benefits of using a Project Board (a team of senior executives that provide oversight for the project and grant authority to the Project Manager through commitment of resources (Siegelaub 2006)). Although not a mandated requirement of PRINCE2, the Project Board is a function which can facilitate greater project ownership from key stakeholders. office will ordinarily be provided on the board through appropriate senior members from the business (usually the higher-ranking Executive), the user organisation and the provider. Presence of a Senior User ensures that customer specifications for a project are adhered to at various review points in the project lifecycle, while the Senior Supplier represents the interests of the team/s designing, developing and implementing the project, to ensure appropriate resources are committed and quality maintained (Wideman 2002). The importance of the customer/sup plier environment that PRINCE2 espouses cannot be overemphasised. In a case study of four interactive media companies trialing the use of PRINCE2, England (2006) identified that wareness of project management practices on some(prenominal) user and supplier sides of any project was essential to facilitating effective project management and in managing stakeholder perceptions and expectations. Companies that achieved this when implementing PRINCE2 had improved communication and smoother reporting. PRINCE2 also advocates delimitate roles for project self-assurance and a configuration librarian, support roles that ensure all interests of a project are served and project and management documentation is maintained and accessible. Business case based decision making PRINCE2s use of defined go/no-go criteria for evaluating a business case by a project board provides an initial stage-gate check for project viability, significantly enhancing the chances of project success.As part of PRINCE 2s processes, the project start-up stage assigns responsibility to a project owner for preparation of the business case. Ownership of the business case encourages the person/s assigned to put sufficient rigour into the business case for approval (thus reducing the likelihood for ill-planned projects to be approved). In a review of one Dutch bank using PRINCE2 for its project management, this process (requiring a detailed justification for business cases) resulted in 30% less projects approved for initiation. Further analysis of these figures confirmed that the reduction of project approvals was attributable to Business Case reviews that identified non-viable projects prior to initiation (Viergever 2009). Product based planningPractitioners generally concur on PRINCE2s planning method as a major strength of its methodology. PRINCE2 expands upon PMBoKs use of a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to incorporate detailed Product Descriptions into a Product Breakdown Structure (phosphate buf fer solution). This inclusion for deliverables not only clarifies expectations of project teams and end-users to ensure that the output provided meets requirements, but also provides a baseline against which scope changes can be measured (Siegelaub 2008). This benefit has been espoused by a number of PMPs (England 2006, Tang 2008, Webber 2009). Wideman (2009) notes that this process can be employ to any project at any level for positive results.The PBS provides a far greater level of detail than the PMBoK WBS by demonstrating the links between products and their associated work activities in the Product Flow Diagram, which facilitates identification of the necessary activities to achieve the final outcome and the creation of associated Gantt charts. As the CEO of IT Governance Ltd (the most comprehensive publishing house of governance, risk and compliance books and tools globally), Alan Calder has endorsed the PRINCE2 methodologys product-based planning approach. In his article on IT Project Governance, Calder (year unknown) highlights that this approach does not simply plan when an activity will be conducted it goes further to clarify the result that is required. Work Packages Siegelaub (2006) has identified PRINCE2s use of Work Packages (the core element of the PRINCE2 work authorisation system) as a major gap in the PMBoK Project Management methodology that PRINCE2 fills.The Work Packages extensively define the work to be performed through Product Descriptions, time, cost and resource constraints techniques for the work to be performed the review and submission process for the work and the procedures for issue reporting. Content can be tailored to the organisation and the type of project and offers a more comprehensive method for defining work. This is one of the fundamental tools that demonstrate how PRINCE2 provides the nuts and bolts method that the PMBoKs framework does not describe in detail. Registers of Scotland Executive Agency (a land title regis tration agency) have implemented Work Packages as a key Project Management deliverable and have experienced greater awareness amongst managers of the detailed structure to their projects and control over the work being performed. Implementation of PRINCE2 within the organisation, specifically through the pplication of the PID, defined the boundaries of projects within and the subsequent allocation of work packages significantly reduced scope creep amongst the company (Gardiner 2002). Change control and configuration management Until recently, change control and management was cover almost exclusively by PRINCE2. PMBoK 4th Edition has started to address this through its section on Integrated Change Control (Kerzner 2009 p 475) however this is not at the very(prenominal) level of maturity as PRINCE2s configuration management and change control approach, as PMBoK identifies the requirement without detailing the means or process to achieve change control. PRINCE2 2009 continues to pro vide a more detailed change management process (Webber 2009).Work Package control in PRINCE2 is closely monitored through the checkpoints and reporting requirements stipulated in the methodology process (including Highlight Reports and Exception Reports) and the requirement to define tolerance levels, contingency plans and change control processes further aid configuration management (Wideman 2002), an area that the PMBoK lacks. Directing the project across all phases PRINCE2s organic description of critical activities across processes facilitates a much more controlled project management process. Definition of how the project will handle riddance situations, and the associated management actions required, as part of the PID during the Start-up stage ensures key participants in the project have a clearly defined process to follow in escalating issues and taking corrective action.This, combined with the employment of Quality Reviews against project deliverables within PRINCE2, ensu res that the Project Manager and Project Board can track project performance across all stages of the project. PRINCE2 offers a simple set of steps to guide how Quality Reviews are employed against these deliverables. Finally, PRINCE2 expands on the PMBoKs reference to the requirement to manage issues, by providing a mechanism for conducting this the come forward Log. The Issue Log provides a recommended format for tracking issues and identifies key points in the project lifecycle that issues should be identified, updated and reviewed (Siegelaub 2006). WEAKNESSES scorn the obvious strengths to the methodology, PRINCE2 as a project management tool in isolation is not an infallible methodology.The method is subject to several weaknesses. Application One of the basic weaknesses of PRINCE2, applicable across both Public and Private sectors, is the methodology complexity and range. A number of organisations are subject to implementing PRINCE2 in name only (PINO), arbitrarily selecting various templates and products from the methodology without sufficient regard to the applicability to their projects, hence weakness to effectively apply the processes. In these situations, the document-centric nature of the methodology leads to the documents becoming ends in themselves instead of tools and products to assist the progress of the project (Project Management Australia 2009).When this occurs excess work may be generated for a project, which overshadows and detracts from the project itself. It must be highlighted however, that these particular shortcomings are failures of the practitioner rather than the methodology. Viergever (2009) supports this view, highlighting the propensity of the methodology to become mired in bureaucratism. Foremost, Viergever highlights culture as a reason for this. PRINCE2 assumes a customer/supplier environment, where both stakeholders have input to the requirements and management of the project. In a culture lacking this cooperation, the supplier drives the ship and so much bureaucratic documentation is prepared without consideration for end user requirements.Secondary to, and supporting this, Viergever acknowledges that organisations have a inclination to apply all the templates and procedures described by PRINCE2. The methodology does not prescribe which of these are essential for different types of projects, therefore many organisations over-prescribe and apply them all. The case of Suffolk County Council (SCC) is a good example where this pitfall was experienced and rectified. aft(prenominal) initial attempts to apply PRINCE2 for better management of public services were met with resistance (due to a perception of bureaucracy and over-prescription of practices), SCC tailored the system into a framework that suited them PRINCE2 Suffolk Style (PRINCESS).Subsequently, the tailored approach provided the general guidance required by managers and employees to clarify role expectations and generic process to be follo wed, while scaling down the reporting product requirements to better suit the organisation and its (comparatively simple) projects (Ling 2009). Poor definition of conveying and procurement Wideman (2002) illustrates a major weakness of the PRINCE2 methodology in the lack of strong detail during Project Conception. As the methodology largely focuses on the commencement of a project from Start-up (or the Implementation phase of the project lifecycle) little attention is paid to how the project may be run when conducted within a abbreviate context and scarce detail is provided on the procurement requirements applicable.Considered in isolation then, the PRINCE2 methodology lacks the detail on how to conduct these activities a significant omission given the emphasis on sub-contracting project phases and elements in recent years. The PMBoK by contrast provides a dedicated chapter to procurement which provides guidance on these activities, including the actual procurement, pre-assignment or dialogue for project team members (ILX Group 2009). Lack of Human Resource focus PRINCE2 does not explore in significant detail the management issues associated with human resources (including team acquisition planning, training, team-building and recognition) despite the importance placed on human assets in various management disciplines (Webber 2009). Van Bon andVerheijen (2006) support this view, arguing that PRINCE2 lacks any real detail on the soft skills of Project Management, where PMBoK does address these issues through a detailed section human resource management. RECOMMENDATION THE APPLICATION OF PRINCE2 AND PMBOK IN COMBINATION Notwithstanding the aforementioned weaknesses of PRINCE2, the methodology remains a very effective project management tool. Noting the obvious conceptual areas that PRINCE2 fails to address in detail, these areas are captured and expanded upon in the PMBoK. Consideration must be given therefore, to the application of both methodologies in con cert. Many academics emphasise how each methodology can be used to complement the other (Siegelaub 2006, Wideman 2009, Yeong 2007).PRINCE2s lack of focus on Communications, Human Resource and Procurement Management are areas that are complemented by PMBoK. Alternatively, PRINCE2s strengths in process and documentation, coupled with its business case approach, provide a stronger focus on the strategy aspects that PMBoK addresses only at higher levels. At the work unit level, the WBS of the PMBoK can be combined with PRINCE2s PBS for a more comprehensive means of structuring project deliverables. Using PMBoK and PRINCE2 as an integrative project management methodology (Yeong 2007) permits organisations to complement the strengths of each while mitigating their individual weaknesses.Ideally, the procedural and product concepts unique to PRINCE2 (Business Case, Project Boards, Issue Logs, Tolerance and Exception Plans, Configuration Management, etc) should be used to flesh out and stre ngthen the PMBoKs knowledge areas. The case of Getronics (a leading vendor of Information Communication and Technology solutions) provides an interesting example for the combination of both the PMBoK framework and the PRINCE2 method. Following its adoption of PRINCE2, Getronics commenced a review of internal methodology to combine both methods. The company had drawn upon its PMP experience to apply the principles of Project Management advocated in thePMBoK including project management soft skills (communication management and people management) as well as other critical areas such as contract (procurement) management and the incorporation of an earned value system. Concurrently, Getronics grounded these aspects in a business case driven environment (one of the hallmarks of the PRINCE2 methodology), with a clearly defined process model for specific activities that were required throughout the project and product based planning that was deliverables driven. This combination evolved in to the Getronics Global Project Management Methodology and has been successfully applied by the company across 30 countries (APM Group 2003).At the individual level, the complementary nature of both methodologies means that the method-based certifications of PRINCE2 practitioners, combined with the PMI accreditation provided to PMPs, allows for a more well-rounded PMP with a holistic understanding of Project Management. At the same time, these skillsets are complemented by technical skills for selecting and applying techniques. The combination makes for a more comprehensive approach that is easily obtained and adopted, based on public domain elements. Essentially, PRINCE2 can provide the depth the PMBoK lacks, while the PMBoK can address the broader elements of project scope not covered by PRINCE2. AUTHORS REFLECTION An obvious limitation of the look into conducted within this report was the lack of quantitative data for analysis.Analysis of case studies is based largely on anecdot al evidence from participating organisations. Whilst the documentation available on PRINCE2s application in business is not propagandistic, there is a notable prevalence of favourable literature and examples published, while examples of failed applications of PRINCE2 appear to be limited. Further quantitative analysis into unsuccessful trials of the methodology (incorporating productivity figures, schedule and cost variances) may provide an interesting counterpoint to the analysis conducted within this report. CONCLUSION As a project management methodology, PRINCE2 represents an alternative option to the PMBoK.PRINCE2 is a more detailed, process-based approach that provides thorough guidance on the management of a particular project. PMBoK by comparison is a more generic methodology that addresses the core knowledge areas of the project management discipline, establishing the framework within which PRINCE2 functions. PRINCE2 has a number of strengths that lie in its detailed process es, however the multiple products and deliverables that the methodology advocates can be incorrectly applied by practitioners if not appropriately adapted to suit the organisation. Despite the widespread support for this methodology across both public and private sector organisations, the methodology is not infallible.Through application in conjunction with the PMBoK however, the relative strengths of each methodology can be applied to counter and reduce the associated weaknesses of the other, for a combined and comprehensive project management methodology. Organisations that embrace the combination of these two approaches and careful application to their project environment are far more likely to experience effective project management and project success. 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Yeong, A 2007, The Marriage Proposal of PRINCE2 and PMBoK, AnthonyYeong. com, retrieved 15 September 09 http//www. anthonyyeong. com/The%20Marriage%20of%20PRINCE2%20and%20PMBOK. pdf APPENDIX 1 PRINCE2 PROCESS MODEL pic (Source ILX Group 2009) APPENDIX 2 PMBOK KNOWLEDGE AREAS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES pic (Source Wideman 2002, p2)APPENDIX 3 PRINCE2 METHODOLOGY BENEFITS FOR BUSINESSES Detailed below is a succinct checklist of the benefits that the PRINCE2 methodology can offer to businesses when applied correctly, based on the methodologys structure for managing projects. These benefits are experienced when PRINCE2 is applied in the absence of any other project management framework or methodology, and do not take into consideration or compare against the benefits tha t alternative methodologies may offer. Benefits have been taken from the Ruleworks Knowledge Management website (2009) picPRINCE2 providesa controlled start, controlled progress, a controlled close. picRegular reviews against plan, business case and risks. picPRINCE2 provides flexible decision points. picAutomatic management control over deviations. picStakeholder involvement at the right times. picClearcommunication channels. picProject managers using PRINCE are able to establish terms of reference before the project start. picThere is a defined structure for delegation & communication. picProject managers divide a project into manageable stages for more accurate planning. picResource commitment from management is part of any approval to proceed. picRegular but brief management reports are available (checkpoint reports, highlight reports and exception reports). picMeetings with management are kept to a minimum, but at vital points in the project. picEnd product users are able to pa rticipate in the decision-making. picEnd users are involved in project progress. picEnd users participate in quality checks throughout the project. picUser requirements are specified. picPRINCE2 is Free (other then any training or support you want to catch up with for). picPRINCE2 has a strong User Group. picPRINCE2 is supported by (UK) Government and organisations such as APM and ISEB. picTraining courses are available from many accredited training organisations. picPRINCE2 is flexible and can be applied to any kind of project.