Monday, September 30, 2019

Groups graphs and surfaces

Graphs, Groups and Surfaces Introduction In this paper, we will discuss the interactions among graphs, groups and surfaces. For any given graph, we know that there is an automorphism group associated with it. On the other hand, for any group, we could associate with it a graph representation, namely a Cayley graph of presentations of the group. We will first describe such a correspondence. Also, a graph is always embeddable in some surface. So we will then focus on properties of graphs in terms of their relation to surfaces. Thus, by using the Cayley graphs to describe a group, we can talk about the embeddability of a group.In this way, we see that we can talk about the geometries of a group by looking at their Cayley graphs. Another useful geometric tool to analyze groups is the Dehn diagram. Therefore, in the last section, we will give some comments on how graph theory may be helpful to Dehn diagrams of Coxeter groups. 2 Cayley Graph of Group Presentations In this section we will s ee how Cayley graphs correspond to a particular presentation of a group and how the properties of a group are reflected in the Cayley graphs. Definition 2. 1. Let G be a group

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Hard Work Leads to Success Essay

Hard work is the key to success. Nothing can be achieved without hard work. Work, work, ever work, is a great panacea. Edison worked for twenty-one hours a day. He slept only for two or three hours on the laboratory tables with his books as his pillow. Our beloved Prime Minister late Pt. Nehru, worked for seventeen hours a day and seven days a week. There were no holidays in his calendar. Mahatma Gandhi worked ceaselessly day and night and won freedom for his country. Hard work is the price that we pay for success and all the gifts of life. It has been-well said, Heights by great man reached and kept, Were not attained by sudden flight, They while their companions slept, Were toiling upwards in the night. † Constant vigilance and preparedness to work is the price we have to pay for success in life. Work is a privilege and a pleasure; idleness is a luxury that none can afford. Man is born to work and prosper in life. He like steel, shines in use and rusts in rest. Work is worship. It exalts man if it is done honestly. Those who toll are, sooner or later, rewarded with luck and success. A man of action acts in the living present. There is no tomorrow for him. He makes the best of his time. Life is full of strife. Life is action. Activity is the law of Nature. A life of idleness is a life of shame and disgrace. Idle men are intruders on society. We are endowed with brain and limbs, which are meant to be properly exercised. Failure in life is very often due to idleness. Industry is the key to success. Industry makes and idleness mars a nation. Greatness can be achieved by great labour only. What a man earns by the sweat of his brow gives him a greater degree of satisfaction than what he gets by a stroke of fortune. Man wishes to have many things in life. Some of, them may be bestowed upon him by fortune, but to have the others he will have to work and toil; for he cannot have them for mere wish. These latter things acquired by hard toil are much sweeter than those he gets by accident. When a man earns by dint of toil; he enjoys a pleasurable sensation which is equivalent to the joy of having won a victory. Of this pleasurable sensation, the man who has been born with a silver spoon in his mouth knows nothing. A self made man is certainly happier and more esteemed, than the man who owes his fortune to the accident of his birth. If a man regularly exercises his physical and mental organs, he, enjoys sound health which is the only wealth a man can boast of. He also builds a moral character which is too strong to yield to any temptation. During his life-time such a man is admired by all for the activities of his body and mind, and after his death, he lives in the minds of men in the deeds he did. Nobody on earth leaves a name to posterity without real work. Surely one must live a life that inspires others and gives the man impetus. A man of action and iron will carries everything before him and, instead of being controlled by circumstances, he himself will control them. What does it matter if a man lives for ninety years, and it is all a story of idleness and wasted opportunities? Jesus Christ died when he was hardly thirty, Swami Vivekananda died before he was forty, Napoleon did not live to be fifty, Lenin died before he was sixty. And yet they have their impress on human history that no octogenarian can claim. Not poverty but idleness is a great curse. If we waste time, time shall waste us. A life crammed with work is a life bubbling with the joy of success. Great men of the world were born in cottages but they died in palaces. America’s famous President Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in the forest. He could not afford a lamp and read borrowed books with the light of the fire in the hearth. And yet by dint of hard work, he rose to be the greatest man of his time. Stalin, the late Prime Minister of Russia, was the son of a mere cobbler.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Chrysler Corporation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Chrysler Corporation - Assignment Example It serves the market niche- i.e. high-end users that want luxurious cars. It ensures to produce superior products that are highly valued and technically advanced cars. It promises to produce the most fuel efficient, reliable, stylish and safe vehicles for consumers all over the world. Chrysler believes in innovation and creativity, and therefore comes up with new, innovative and technologically advanced vehicles. Chrysler is one of those companies who value their customers a great deal. The second great strength of the company is that it has started to focus greatly on customer care. It is the first auto company to have a Chief Customer Officer. This has generated significant improvement in its customer services and the company has achieved competitive advantage. Their biggest weakness is their poor relationship with their suppliers and dealers. For an organization like this, they strongly have to rely on their suppliers & dealers. They need to work on and build the good relationship with them to ensure a good supply chain. Chrysler’s overall market share is small and declining. According to the Wall Street Journal, 2010 the market share had dropped by 11% from a previous year in 2009 and is now 9.2%. In 2010 the market share was increased to 9.5% which was again not a very significant improvement. Consumers are more interested in fuel efficient, environmentally friendly and innovative automobiles. The demand for greener vehicles is increasing and consumers are becoming more conscious about the environment they live in. It is expected that the market for green cars is going to be 55% by the year 2015. Although Chrysler’s strong points are minivans and SUVs, a partnership with Fiat has created opportunities for the company to penetrate in South American and Asian markets by producing smaller cars.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Malnutrition among people older than 65 years Essay

Malnutrition among people older than 65 years - Essay Example The study â€Å"Malnutrition among people older than 65 years† investigates the psychological effects of malnutrition among the elderly and their caregivers. Despite the recent attention given to malnutrition among elderly people, politicians have been painfully slow in taking the issue seriously. Finding a way to solve this issue forms the basis for this paper. In medical terms, malnutrition is either effect if illness or a cause of illness. Malnutrition can be a result of another disease like cancer. For instance, people undergoing cancer treatment are usually nauseated and their appetite is usually low. The disinterest in eating can lead to leads to malnourishment if it goes on for a longtime. Malnourishment can lead to exhaustion, confusion, and increases the risk of infections due to a weak immune system as well as increasing the risk of falling due to muscle weakness. Psychological factors such as depression and social isolation can also lead to under-eating. Health prom otion theory usually helps in in capturing the nature of health promotion in a way that provides a framework for analyzing and describing the processes, activities and contents of health promotion. Health promotion model studies health promotion framework, practice and design intervention. There are several models of health promotion such as Beattie’s model, Tannahill’s model, Holland and Caplan’s model, Pender’s model and Tone’s model. The public is more aware than ever before about the dangers of malnutrition among the older people.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

You chose Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

You chose - Essay Example The disaster evolved, as a result of, two basic factors. Seemingly, the hurricane itself and the collapse of the levees that protected the city were built below the sea level. These aspects made Katrina a more complex natural disaster to fight leading to industrial disaster, evacuation challenges, widespread of poisonous pollution, persistent flooding and unprecedented public concerns regarding human safety. The protection against the Katrina is reflected to start with the weather forecasting team early 2005. The meteorologists warned people surrounding the Gulf Coast region to evacuate the region. Additionally, the National Weather Service was concerned in that it warned people that after the storm the area will be uninhabitable hence it advised people for looking alternative places to reside until it was over. The protection efforts by the federal government were seen to be executed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. People in the New Orleans were to evacuate and seek for new shelter. However, the government had allowed some of the population that could not leave the town immediately to occupy the Morial Complex. Jointly, FEMA officials and an emergency-preparedness contractor advised FEMA that the evacuation process was not effective as it lacked sufficient transportation for the large population. There are different techniques that FEMA and other relevant authorities adopted for the mitigation process for the Katrina Hurricane. For instance, the University of Mississippi adopted the radio-controlled warning systems that warned of the Tornado. FEMA addressed and initiated Diamondhead homes in the Coastal regions that could prevent the people from future floods and injuries. It included a reinforced and laminated beams along the ceilings enhanced the roofs’ capability to anchor themselves. After such an event, the constructions of the houses in the affected areas were subjected to the International Residential

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Trokosi as modern-day slavery in Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Trokosi as modern-day slavery in Africa - Essay Example It is taking recognition for work that is wholly theres (Dayton University). Scholars who rely on their understanding show that they are ready to work dishonesty around work. Students who do not follow academic uprightness of the establishment realize this either through; dishonest collaboration, plagiarism, deceitful aid, enticement and intimidating conduct and should be reported to the penal team of honor codes center in the school. All universities have a code of conduct that students need to observe (Stenford University). Academic honesty is one the kindest. Infringements involve activities such as; cheating, plagiarism, and presenting unauthorized work. These actions are punishable not only in learning institutions, but also in the corporate world (Boston College). Corrective measures are restored and violators are at risk of being shown the wrath. Some of these disciplinary measures include, expulsion, grade disqualification, detention, restitution, above from accessing school facilities and referral to the counselling department among others (Boston College, Cornell University and Dayton University). An experience in the composition lecturer was overwhelming one. An English final exam was to be done with diligence. I was to undertake an exam which was my last chance to prove my worthiness to be given a decent grade. Previously my assessment test had been showing daunting results.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Final project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Final project - Assignment Example A proper analysis will provide an efficient project plan that provides well for, the work breakdown structure, methodology, work packages and the estimated time required to complete the project at hand. Risk plan for the whole project will also be designed and implemented for the foreseen risks that could hamper the successful delivery of the project. Unmitigated risks in the construction industry have cost significant loss of property and life. The financial loss can be in terms of delay and over expenditure. Some of the serious risks that must have a proper management plan include design changes, cost overrun, project process approval, safety and the conditions of the sites among others. The project will be divided into three major activities namely preparation, lifting and reinforcing the building. The preparation will involve the following activities i.e. plans and permits, assembly of machines, cleaning of the soil, temporal removal of ducts, removal of the floor, removal of the walls, installation of ducts system back, and supplying of heat to restore warmth. During these activities, the residents will not be required to vacate their houses but there will be temporal disruption of their normal services. This phase will take an estimated 27 days. The lifting phase will include the following activities, assembly of the machinery, removing of the porch, installation of the jacks, lifting of the building and finally, transfer of the soil to another place This phase will take an estimated 6 days to complete. The final phase will include activities such as additional excavation, foundation replacement, lowering of the building, framing, refitting of the furnace, and finishing. This phase will take 11 days to finish. Figure 2.0 shows the relationship between the activities projected to finish the project. The diagram also outlines the resources assigned to each activity and the flow in which the activities will be carried out.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Should colleges have male female quotas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Should colleges have male female quotas - Essay Example There are many reasons why colleges should have male and female quotas. For example, it gives students ample time for academic studies in the school. This is because they are able to make personal studies in the room and complete assignments without wasting time. Similarly, the establishment of male and female quotas accords students easy access to school facilities such as books, classes and the library (Franceschet, et al 145). Additionally, quick acquisition of such college materials helps students to cope well in class especially during the time of exams. Alternatively, there is the provision of security for students when both male and female quotas are found within the college. In other words, there is the essence of students enjoying their learning without the hassles of being mugged and robbed outside the college compound. Another fundamental reason why colleges should have male and female quotas is to encourage interaction of both sexes to improve on maturity. In other words, it is imperative for young people as they outgrow their hormonal and adolescent energies to practice how to cohabit with the members of the opposite sex without comprising their morals and virtues. Therefore, it solidifies the morals of the male and female students especially as they learn various youthful activities (Engelstad & Teigen 123). ... In other words, this is cemented by the ability to strike long term friendships that help even outside the college quotas. Similarly, the constant interaction leads to broadening one’s perception about life and its pitfalls. Another fundamental reason is the need to create both male and female quotas to attain proximity of college materials and facilities (Franceschet, et al 157). Moreover, this reduces the expenses of transportation that could be apportioned in other areas. Moreover, when the college establishes both male and female quotas together, students are able to seek extra comfort such as buying of kitchen facilities, laundry services and TV set. Others include purchasing of Wi-Fi systems for male students where they are safe within the college. In the same context, when there are quotas for both genders within the college one can make meals using the electricity without any interference. Quotas also accord the students the privilege of having private lockers that the y can use for personal items such as books, clothes and shoes among others (Engelstad & Teigen 114). On the same context, rubbing shoulders with students of different customs and cultures in the college quotas expands the minds of the students to think in different perspectives. Furthermore, quotas established within the college provide both the male and female students with the ability to prolong their stay as long as they are students in the school. This is unlike if there were quotas outside hence forcing students to hire rooms outside the college compound. Another crucial reason for colleges establishing male and female quotas is to deter students from falling to the temptations of the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Macroeconomics - Essay Example The level of GDP increased from trough to peak by around 10.2 percent between the year 1981 and 1988, which states that the recovery was strong after the recession. Also after the 1990’s recession there was a sharp increase in GDP growth level. However it is evident that there is a long recovery period after the 2008 global financial crises of UK’s economy. When compared the recovery from all recession periods, it is evident from Figure 2 from the case that recovery from 2008 recession has been protracted and has the deepest fall in GDP growth levels in the year of 2008 recession. The period of Great Moderation that lasted from 1993 to 2007 was faced with smooth growth, low unemployment and low inflation. During this period economy grew to around 5 percent until it was faced with recession in 2008. There are a number of factors that can be attributed to a fall in UK’s saving ratio between 1993 and 2008.It is visible from figure 15 from the case that saving ratio fell to lowest 1.7 percent by the end of 2007.The graph also denotes fall in saving ratio over the years 1993 to 2008. Interest rate in the UK’s economy was low from 1993 that further fell to 3 % in 2003 as seen from figure 12 from the case. This meant that credit was easily available to borrowers at a cheaper cost and savers were not ready to delay consumption and instead save for lower return on savings. Low interest rates and low inflation acted as a disincentive to save. At same time housing prices were rising, which leads to wealth affect and people were ready to borrow and spend more. This wealth effect made people more confident to spend as they knew that value of their property was rising. This is could be seen in figure 13 where there is a sharp rise in average UK housing prices from 1993 to 2007, more than tripling over the 15 year period (Tejvan, 2008). Easily available credit during this period had encouraged more

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Like Water for Chocolate Essay Example for Free

Like Water for Chocolate Essay Suggests that the soup has made her feel like a baby again given that while she is still in her mom’s belly she cries very hard when onions are chopped and it suggest the impact of food to Tita. After drinking the soup Tita has miraculously recovered from the loss of pigeons which she kept as pet and that triggered her sense of loosing Pedro and R erself to cook she fell in love with it and got a part time job as an assistant to a cooking teacher. Even though she has a lack of precision she was hired because she wasn’t afraid to fail and has a passion to cook unlike the others and getting hired made her feel confident, hence gaining control of life through cooking. The protagonist, Tita in Like Water for Chocolate gains control through cooking as well. Cooking is the only thing Tita love to do because Mama Elena bans her from doing a lot of things; the kitchen is the area where she can retreat from Mama Elena’s demands. When she cooked quail in rose petal sauce she controlled and triggered a lot of peoples emotion. Her sister Gertrudis was the first on affected by the dish, it aroused her sexual desire. She fled naked from her burning shower and when on a horse, galloping away with a soldier. Another incident where she gained control is the Chabela wedding cake she made for her lover Pedro and Rosaura. Even though she couldn’t stop the wedding, she made everyone cry. She made people cry for her tragic experience not only the guests cried, Mama Elena cried as well. She lost control of her life but through cooking she gain control of people’s emotions. In Like Water for Chocolate, food is not just a nutrition it acts as a very important nurturing role. The ox-tail soup Dr. John gave Tita has recalled the best moments of her life and brought back memories of her and Nacha making ox-tail soup together, chopping onions. It suggests that the soup has made her feel like a baby again given that while she is still in her mom’s belly she cries very hard when onions are chopped and it suggest the impact of food to Tita.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Development of Cryptography Studies

Development of Cryptography Studies 0.1 Abstract This report is an overview of some structures that have heavily influence the course and study of Cryptography the last decades. Initially, we will analyse the structure of some important ciphers such as DES, 3DES and AES by underlying some dark and complicated points and emphasizing the critical  functions called S-boxes. We will then expand of some basic attributes of these block ciphers, for example the running time of them and their hardware and software performance. Finally, we will focus on a highly important aspect of these cryptosystems, security by exploring some of the most significant attacks that have been discovered against them. The paper is concluded with a presentation of the most important results of our investigation. 1 Introduction Cryptography has a very rich history, rooted back in the ancient years. Even Greeks of classical times have demonstrated understanding of ciphers, with the example of Herodotus to be the most well known, who tattooed a message to his slave head on a slaves shaved head and hide it under his regrown hair. Before the modern era, cryptography had an absolute target the achievement of confidentiality of a message. The most crucial years for cryptography were undoubtedly the last century. The decisive step was an investigation of Claude Shannon, the father of information security. In his seminar at 1949, Shannon analysed and illustrated block ciphers and suggest that, if they are combined with some operations that can provide the whole cipher with permutation and substitution, they should be a reasonable option. A block cipher, is an encryption scheme that belongs in the branch of Cryptography that is called symmetric-key Cryptography. This name is justified by the fact that the parties th at are involved in the communication through the cipher use the same secret key. Later designed as iterated product ciphers, block ciphers are deterministic algorithms that operate on fixed length groups of bits, called blocks. The major attribute for a block cipher is that the length of the input, called plaintext, and the length of the output, called ciphertext, is always the same. They take as an input a key of k-bits length and the this key is expanded to many different keys following a sequence of operations, the so called round keys. Typically, a block cipher is built by iteration, using a function called round function. In every round, the round function takes as an input the corresponding message and the round key and produces a new outcome which is oriented to be used in the next round. The final round will produce the ciphertext. Block ciphers have been widely used and dramatically influence the new era of humanity, and more importantly for commercial reasons in industry a nd banking. There is a remarkable variety of examples from block ciphers, although for the rest of this paper we will focus on the most famous examples that dominated the whole area of symmetric-key Cryptography in the new era. These are called DES, 3DES, AES. Blowfish has also attracted the attention since there isnt still any known vulnerability but it will remain outside of the scope of this report. 2 Analysis and Description 2.1 Data Encryption Standard (DES) Nowadays, DES is considered to be insecure, but it had a huge impact in the development of the symmetric-key cryptography for many decades after its invention. It has been designed back in 1976, when the government of the United States realized the overwhelming necessity of an algorithm that could effectively protect government data and safely used for buying products from the international markets. The most interesting difference of DES with its predecessor, Lucifer, which has been designed by Horst Fiestel, is that the key length and the block length has been reduced significantly. Nevertheless, the key length, especially, was from the time that DES was published, under heavy criticism and was actually badly broken in 1997 with the so-called exhaustive search attack. That means that a machine was able to search all the possible keys and find the correct one. DES has a very rich history of attacks and we will examine some of these attacks in more detail later in this paper. The core idea behind DES is the so-called Feistel Network, where a block cipher can built up with the use of some arbitrary functions f0,f1,fd : {0,1}n → {0,1}n. There is a wide variety of block ciphers that have a similar construction, although AES has a completely different construction. The critical point in these kinds of constructions is the structure of these functions, which can vary significantly. Abstractly speaking, the main target is to construct an invertible function F : {0,1}2n → {0,1}2n in order to able to decrypt the ciphertext. DES is basically a 16-round Fiestel network. More specifically, the input is exactly 64 bits, so R0 and L0 are 32 bits each. Obviously, from the diagram above, in every the half of the bits remains unchanged. The other half comes with a sequence of operations. Initially, as specified by the protocol, a permutation of the whole input takes place, followed by a 16-round Fiestel Network. Each function f0,f1,f16 : {0,1}16 → {0 ,1}16 that is used at each round is computed by using the corresponding subkey, fi(x) = F(ki,x) ,in order to make the decryption circuit feasible and manageable from a hardware perspective of view. This subkey is produced by the main key, in the following way: 56 bits are selected from the 64 bits that contains the key, the 56 bits are divided into two 28 bit halves and each half is treated afterwards separately. In every round, both halves are rotated form the left to the right by one or two bits and then 48 bits are selected, 24 from the left and 24 from the right to build the corresponding subkey. After these 16 rounds of the Fiestel network, there is one more permutation before the final output is computed. The following image describes the construction of the fi function. Initially, the input of 32-bits replicates 48-bits with some simple calculations and then the result is XOR with the 48-bits subkey. The 48-bits are splitted to 8 blocks of 6 bits and passed to the S-boxes. This is the most critical point of a block cipher and bad implementation of S-boxes can easily compromise security. A S-box is a function {0,1}6 → {0,1}4 and acts like a look-up table. The selection of these tables is of vital importance and has been a controversial matter for many years. It has been proved that linear S-boxes is definitely not an option. Even a partly linear S-box can run under some kind of attacks. After the implementation of all the S-boxes, a last permutation that maps the 32-bits around, takes place. The decryption circuit follows exactly the inverse procedure. Obviously, the encryption and decryption circuit are almost identical as the only actual difference is the order that the f1,f2,,fd functions are applied. This fact made DES very attractive to hardware developers because they had to implement just one algorithm for both procedures. 2.2 Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) As already mentioned, DES has been proved to be vulnerable under certain types of attacks so significant has been made in order to improve the security of DES. For this reason, DES has been replaced by 3DES, which was published in 1998 To begin with, let E : KXM → M be a block cipher and lets define the function 3E : K3 → M as 3E((k1,k2,k3),m) = E(k1,D(k2,E(k3,m))), where D denotes the decryption algorithm. Actually, there are three encryption steps. The main question that arises here is why the middle one is a decryption algorithm and not and encryption algorithm. The answer is simple; this would have lead to the implementation of a single DES, beacause the first and the second DES operations cancel out. will cancel the other. Obviously, the key-size, as it was intended, has been increased to 168-bits, as each of the keys is 56-bits. There are three options for keys; in the first key options all the keys are independent, in the second option k1andk2 are independent and k3 = k1 and in the third all three key are identical, k1 = k2 = k3. The third option is no longer recommended by the NIST( National Institute of Standards and Technology), the first key option is the strongest with a total number of 168 key bits as mentioned above, and the second option is stronger that simply implementing DES twice. 2.3 Why not double DES? 3DES is considered to be a secure block cipher. Nevertheless, a normal question is why 2DES in not an option, as it may not seem easy to beak by brute force with a key-length space 2112. A 2DES can be defined in the following way; 2E(k1,k2),m) = E(k1,E(k2,m)) with a key length 112 bits. This construction turns out to be completely insecure and the reason for this is the meet-in-the-middle attack. Basically, if an attacker has at his disposal an actual message and the corresponding ciphertext, which will be of the same length, he will try to find a pair of key (k1,k2) that E(k1,E(k2,M)) = C. If we apply at both parts of this equation the decryption algorithm, then we get the get E(k2,M) = D(k1,C). So, the attacker will try to figure out which is the appropriate pair of key in order to map the message M and ciphertext C at the same point this also justifies the name of the attack meet-in-themiddle. The attack is structured in two steps: Firstly, the attacker has to build up a table wi th all the 2112 keys and the corresponding encryptions and then sort this list, and secondly, for all possible key that belongs to {0,1}56, he calculates D(k,C) and he looks for a match at the previous table. Whenever he finds the first match, his goal has been achieved. The running time of this attack is 256log(256) + 256log(256) < 263, time that is much smaller than the time that is necessary for brute force attack. 2.4 Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) It is widely acceptable AES has been adopted by the U.S. government and nowadays is used worldwide. As DES was proved insecure and 3DES quite slow, the demand for a more effective encryption scheme grew rapidly and at 1997 NIST requested a new proposal. After some investigation, NIST chose Rijndael as AES at 2000, a cipher that was designed in Belgium. AES, unlikely to its predecessor, its not a Feistel Network. In contrast, it is called a substitution-permutation network because both actions of permutation and substitution take place. AES has a fixed block size of 128-bits, although the key length can vary, 128,192 or 256 bits. Additionally, in every round of AES all bits change while in every round of DES half of the bits remain unchanged. Generally, a substitution permutation networks initial input is operated with an XOR with the corresponding round subkey, then goes through a substitution layer where there are some blocks, configured depending on what the substitution table says and finally a permutation layer follows where all bits are permuted. This procedure is repeated many times until the final outcome is produced. All steps of a substitution permutation network must be reversible in order to be able to decrypt. Specifically for AES, the 128-bits, which are equal to 16-bytes, are handled with the help of a 4X4 matrix with ten repeated rounds to follow. Each element of this matrix is one byte. Each byte comes under the XOR operation with the corresponding round subkey, and then a function is applied in every round that consists of three steps: (1) The Sub-Bytes step, according to which all bytes are replaced with other coming from a look-up table, named Rijndael S-box. This S-box is associated with the Galois Field(28) which is considered to have goo properties. This is a critical operation for the overall structure, as it provides AES with non-linearity. (2) The Shift-Rows step, where the last three rows of the current state are moved some certain positions to the left while the first row remains stable and (3) the Mix-Columns step, where all the bytes of each column of the current state are combined under a linear transformation. The last two steps provide AES with diffusion, a vital property for a secure cipher according to which if we change one bit of the plaintext then almost half of the bits o f the ciphertext will change. It is also considerable that the step Mix-Columns is omitted at the last round of AES. Each subkey is produced by the main key with some kind of expansion similar to the DES. The key expansion is introduced with a number of operations named rotate, Rcon, and S-box and then follows an inner loop in key schedule before the final subkey is produced. 3 Comparison and Attacks 3.1 Running time A real concern about which algorithm is appropriate, especially for commercial use, is the effectiveness and its running time. In general, the larger the block size is, the faster is the algorithm, obviously because larger amount of data is encrypted in one round of operations. Similarly, the smaller the key size is, the faster is the encryption algorithm, because the less key bits are involved in the operations and thus the complexity of them is reduced. A series of experiments have taken place to verify which of the famous encryption algorithms, AES,DES,3DES. Most of these experiments implement these encryption algorithms in Java, although there are some others that used C, most of them at a machine of Pentium 2 or Pentium 4. At most of these experiments, the fastest of these algorithms has been proved to be DES, followed by AES and finally from the 3DES, as it is three times slower than DES. It obviously doesnt make sense to examine the running time of these block ciphers in compl ete isolation with the security that they provide although it is definitely a factor that must be taken into consideration. 3.2 Software and Hardware Implementation Another important aspect that must be examined is the performance of these block ciphers in combination with the available hardware. Again, a lot of study has been carried out and provide us with some clear evidence. In compact architecture, 3DES, DES and AES have displayed very similar performance. In contrast, in high-speed architecture, AES is considered to be almost 4-times than the 3DES and DES. This is happening due to a variety of reasons, amongst them there is no hardware support for DES in modern CPUs, when from the other side there is for AES in increasingly many CPUs, including most targeting servers; hence hardware DES is oà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¾oaded to a distant IC, when AES is often in-core. Additionally, DES is often used in CBC mode which makes parallelization inevitable and processed in advance during encryption when AES is mainly used in CTR mode where the possibility of parallelization is available. Finally, DES, and its expansion 3DES is much slower in software than AES, obviously because it was designed back at 1976 before the 8086 processor was designed and uses a lot of bit operations that are not implemented suà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã†â€™ciently in a processor with a word oriented instruction set. 3.3 Attacks on DES and 3DES As already mentioned earlier at this paper, 2DES has been collapsed from the meet-in-the-middle-attack. Simultaneously, DES, despite its contribution to the overall development of cryptography, has also been defeated by a quite popular attack named exhaustive search. Exhaustive search means that the attacker will search the whole key space and he will find the appropriate, which is unique, in suà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã†â€™cient amount of time. There are some cases, even in the real world where the attacker can obtain some pairs (mi,ci), where m denotes a message and c the corresponding ciphertext. Under this small requirement, DES was badly broken. To be specific, a company named RSA, back at 1997 announced a problem with the name DES challenge. The company announced six ciphertexts and in parallel announced the first three actual messages and asked for the scientific community to search for the key and use it to obtain the other messages. The same year of the request the challenge had been solved. To go further, the rapid hardware  development was able to create a machine that find the key and solve the problem, equivalently crack DES, within less than one day at the year 1999 with exhaustive search, leading to the assumption that 56-bits length block ciphers should not be used any more. As DES is one of the most famous and controversial block ciphers, it is not entirely surprising that there is a variety of attacks developed against DES, some of them even faster than exhaustive search. Back at 1998, Kocher and Jun demonstrated a very innovative idea by making a side channel attack, introducing a new era for cryptography. Side channels attacks extract information from the physical implementation of the cipher. This type of attack was specifically against smart cards, and is based in power measurement. They actually measured precisely the running time of the smart cards and analysed the diagrams that they obtain from this measurement. In this way, they were able to learn wa s much time was consumed by in each operation from the smart card and find exactly the key. Nowadays, even smart cards are equipped with mechanisms that dont reveal any information of the power consumption there is an attack called differential power analysis, which can steal the secret key after running a lot of time the smart card. It should me mentioned that these attacks are quite general and not for smart cards. In addition, there is another type of a quite highly surprising class of attacks called fault attacks. In this occasion, the attacker can cause a malfunction to a mechanism, lets say to a smart card, for example by warming it up. If he manage to cause and recognise an error at the last round of DES he will be able to discover the secret key. The last attack that we would like to point out is the so called linear cryptanalysis. This is a generic attack and was introduced by Matsui at 1993 and is one of the most realistic, sophisticated and quick attacks on the DES. His a ttacks, and generally in linear cryptanalysis, one tries to find probalistic linear relations between the plaintext, the ciphertext and the secret key. He starts by examining linear relations at the S-boxes of one round and if he succeeds, he will use the to find out linear relations in one-round and then finally them iteratively to find multi-round relations. These relations from round to round are not independent. By combining all these linear relations, the attacker should be able to retrive the secret key. Matsui attack used 244 known plaintexts to find 13 bits of the secret key with a high probability . A similar method was applied to find another 13 bits and then for the remaining 30-bits he applied exhaustive search, he applied exhaustive search, reducing significantly the time that the initial exhaustive search demands. Today, linear cryptanalysis is considered to be, with some improvements, one of the most powerful attacks on DES. Although DES is considered to be faultless and no specific technical vulnerabilities has been found, a high level of linearity at the fifth box of DES has created the possibility for someone to generate this type of attack. Most of the previously referred attacks can also be implemented against 3DES, as the two block ciphers are obviously, highly related. To begin with, an exhaustive search is not suà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã†â€™cient any more as the key space, if we use three totally independent keys, is huge, especially if we take into consideration the computational power that a strong mahine can demonstrate nowadays. The meet-in-the middle-attack can be applied in a very similar mode, as the attacker can still create a sorted table with the first implementation of DES between one element of the table and the implementation of twice the DES at the opposite direction. The time needed for this attack is 2112, which is considered to be a high level of security, as nowadays a satisfactory level of security against a certain attack is approximately 290, although is still faster in comparison with exhaustive search. Lately, a new attack against block ciphers has been displayed, mainly intended against 3DES and Blowfish and exploits well known kind of vulnerabilities like collision and birthday attacks. Since this is currently under examination and was published only this year, we are not going to expand more. Overall, till today there is not a known and widely acceptable attack that cracks 3DES in a reasonable amount of time. 3.4 Attacks on AES Rijndael has outplayed all other candidates suggested for the AES and so has been analysed quite a bit the last decade. A lot of attacks have been introduced although none of them has hurt AESs security significantly. To begin with, there is a lot of analysis around the meet-in-the-middle attack and some possible improvements of it over the last five years. Gilbert and Minier have proved a very interesting distinguishing property for the first four rounds of AES with the following proposition; lets consider a set of 256 plaintexts where the entry a11 takes all byte values between 0 and 255 exactly once over a given set of plaintexts and all other entries are equal to a constant. If we encrypt this set with three rounds of AES then the function that maps a11 to C11 is determind by 9 fixed 1-byte parameters. C11 denotes the byte values at row i, column j. This proposition was used by them to implement the same idea of the meet-in-the-middle attack. Some further investigation have shown that the number of the parameters, and specifically for 13 or 14 bytes, and this is able to be reduced so the number of the required plaintexts will be minimized. Another famous class of attacks are called cache attacks. Cache is a small part of high speed memory and it aims to keep the CPU as much busy as possible. The catch parameters influence the running time of an algorithm. Specifically, when an element of a data array is called, then we have two possible outcomes. Id the element lies n the cache memory,then the access is instant. In a different situation, the element must be accessed from the main memory. This operation will be executed in significantly different running times and reveal valuable information. We can separate this class of attacks into three families; cold start misses, which arise for the first reference of the data, capacity misses which the magnitude of the element is bigger than the size o the cache and the conflict misses, which may happen in the case of accessing recently accessed data. 4 Conclusion In this paper we examined the structure of popular block ciphers that heavily influenced the development of Cryptography, like DES,3DES and AES and we have compared them in means of running time and software and hardware implementation. We have also considered some basic attacks that have been applied on these cryptosystems. We come to the conclusion that AES is the most safe and practical block ciphers, and this is justified by the fact that is has been chosen for encryption at a series of important applications nowadays. IS it estimated that AES will fully replace 3DES until 2030. There is not any doubt that AES is the most practical and convenient cipher from a hardware and running time perspective. Nevertheless, further investigation must definitely be carried out to ensure the the safety of AES, especially under the increasing enhancement of the technological means, is guaranteed. Finally, the attack Sweet32 is a newly invented attack and must carefully be examined, mainly becau se it is really compromise 3DES security, countermeasures must be taken DES will fully replaced by AES. 5 References [1] Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup, A Graduate Course of Cryptography, August 2015. [2] Diaa Salama Abd Elminaam,Hatem Mohamed Abdual Kader and Mohiy Mohamed Hadhoud, Evaluating The Performance of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms, Higher Technological Institute 10th of Ramadan City, Egypt, (Received Feb. 16, 2009; revised and accepted May 12, 2009) [3] Aamer Nadeem, Dr M. Younus Javed, A Performance Comparison of Data Encryption Algorithms, Department of Computer Engineering, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. [4] Akashi Satoh and Sumio Morioka, Hardware-Focused Performance Comparison for the Standard Block Ciphers AES, Camellia, and Triple-DES, Tokyo Research Laboratory IBM Japan Ltd. [5] Huseyin Demirci, Ihsan TaskÄ ±n, Mustafa Coban, and Adnan Baysal, Improved Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks on AES, 2011. [6] Daniel J. Bernstein, Cache-timing attacks on AES, Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science (M/C 249) The University of Illinois at Chicago, 2005. [7] Eran Tromer, Dag Arne Osvik and Adi Shamir, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, G682, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA and Laboratory for Cryptologic Algorithms, Station 14,  ´Ecole Polytechnique F ´ed ´erale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Received 20 July 2007 and revised 25 June 2009. [8] Anne Canteaut, C ´edric Lauradoux and Andr ´e Seznec, Understanding cache attacks, April 2006. [9] Johannes Blomer and Volker Krummel, Analysis of countermeasures against access driven cache attacks on AES, Faculty of Computer Science, Electrical Engineering and Mathematics University of Paderborn, Germany 2009. [10] Hamdan.O.Alanazi, B.B.Zaidan, A.A.Zaidan, Hamid A.Jalab, M.Shabbir and Y. Al-Nabhani, New Comparative Study Between DES, 3DES and AES within Nine Factors, Journal of Computing, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2010. [11] Henri Gi lbert and Thomas Peyrin, Super-Sbox Cryptanalysis:Improved Attacks for AES-like Permutations, Orange Labs, France [12] Elisabeth Oswald, Stefan Mangard, Norbert Pramstaller and Vincent Rijmen, Institute for Applied Information Processing and Communciations (IAIK), Austria, 2005. [13] Kai Schramm, Gregor Leander, Patrick Felke and Christof Paar, A Collision-Attack on AES Combining Side Channel and Differential Attack, Horst Gortz Institute for IT Security, Germany 2005. [14] Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich, Related-Key Cryptanalysis of the Full AES-192 and AES-256, University of Luxembourg 2011. [15] A Chosen-Plaintext Linear Attack on DES, Lars R. Knudsen and John Erik Mathiassen Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, N5020 Bergen, Norway, 2000. [16] Jawahar Thakur and Nagesh Kumar, DES, AES and Blowfish: Symmetric Key Cryptography, Algorithms Simulation Based Performance Analysis, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ije (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2011) [17] Stefan Tillich and Christoph Herbst, Attacking State-of-the-Art Software Countermeasures A Case Study for AES, Institute for Applied Information Processing and Communications, Inffeldgasse 16a, A-8010 Graz, Austria

Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Conversation with Anna Quindlan and Alice Walker :: Biography Biographies Essays

A Conversation with Anna Quindlan and Alice Walker It was an early Fall afternoon. The kind of afternoon which lends itself to quiet contemplation of the meaning of life, either while sitting under a tree, or walking through the woods admiring the changing foliage, or writing by sunlight in a quiet coffeeshop I had begun to call home. This particular afternoon I opted for the coffeeshop. I walked through the door and waved to Theresa, who was standing behind the counter. In the three years I had been coming to this place I was never served by anyone but Theresa. She knew me only as "Honey." As my eyes adjusted to the light on the inside of the coffeeshop, I removed my jacket and moved to my customary spot at the table to the extreme rear, beside the windows. I sit here because, in this corner, I can be an inconspicuous observer of the world. I have a view of the street outside the window and a view of the interior of the coffeeshop from this vantage point. While on the way to my table, I noticed something new in my second home. There the two of them sat. One white, thirty-something, in a conservative blue dress. The other black, only the experience that shows in her eyes giving away her true age of fifty-two, dressed in a colorful, flowing dress that seemed to have a vibrant life of its own. They appeared to be engaged in light conversation like two women from a General Foods International Coffee commercial. I immediately changed direction and headed for their table. "Mrs. Quindlen, Mrs. Walker, it is a pleasure and an honor to see you. I have read your books and thoroughly enjoyed them. Would you mind if I joined you?" "Not at all," stated Mrs. Quindlen. "Please, call me Anna." She studied my face intently, trying to decide whether or not to continue with the conversation or to simply while away the time with small talk until they could gently push me away. She decided on the former. "We were just sitting here discussing men. You just happened to walk up and now we have a real live man with which to examine.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Effects of divorce :: essays research papers

Each year, over 1 million American children suffer the divorce of their parents; moreover, half of the children born this year to parents who are married will see their parents divorce before they turn 18. Mounting evidence in social science journals demonstrates that the devastating physical, emotional, and financial effects that divorce is having on these children will last well into adulthood and affect future generations. Among these broad and damaging effects are the following: †¢ Children whose parents have divorced are increasingly the victims of abuse. They exhibit more health, behavioral, and emotional problems, are involved more frequently in crime and drug abuse, and have higher rates of suicide. †¢ Children of divorced parents perform more poorly in reading, spelling, and math. They also are more likely to repeat a grade and to have higher drop-out rates and lower rates of college graduation. †¢ Families with children that were not poor before the divorce see their income drop as much as 50 percent. Almost 50 percent of the parents with children that are going through a divorce move into poverty after the divorce. †¢ Religious worship, which has been linked to better health, longer marriages, and better family life, drops after the parents divorce. The divorce of parents, even if it is amicable, tears apart the fundamental unit of American society. Today, according to the Federal Reserve Board's 1995 Survey of Consumer Finance, only 42 percent of children aged 14 to 18 live in a "first marriage" family--an intact two-parent married family. It should be no surprise to find that divorce is having such profound effects on society. Restoring the importance of marriage to society and the welfare of children will require politicians and civic leaders to make this one of their most important tasks. It also will require a modest commitment of resources to pro-marriage programs. Fiscal conservatives should realize that federal and state governments spend $150 billion per year to subsidize and sustain single-parent families.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Drive Towards Insanity Essay -- Character Analysis

The descent into madness is never a pretty road to travel. The journey involves multiple paths which are staggered into twists, turns, a fork in the road, and sometimes a glimmer of hope before reaching complete insanity. Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Black Cat† is one such story of a man who has stepped fully into the realm of madness. The end result of the narrator’s actions due to his mental state involve the maltreatment of his beloved pets, the hanging of his prized cat, and the eventual murder of his caring wife. The protagonist begins the tale by reassuring the recipient of the letter that he is perfectly sane, and that the entire ordeal was not a dream by any means. Many figures in history and in fiction have stated the same claim while performing evil acts. Christopher Nolan’s â€Å"The Dark Knight† shows one such character the Joker, played by Heath Ledger, who also claims to be perfectly sane while performing heinous crimes. He openly murde rs innocent civilians, causes destructive-mayhem, and openly tries to convert other characters into his cult of madness while believing himself to be fully sane. The Joker explains to Batman that â€Å"madness, as you know, is like gravity. All it takes is a little push† (Ledger). Poe uses carefully chosen language, flawless imagery, and gothic characteristics in â€Å"The Black Cat† to show that beneath every individual the drive toward insanity can explode into a reality. Poe masterfully uses carefully chosen language to make the narrator seem like a regular human being with some destructive tendencies. He playfully suggests that each individual â€Å"himself [committed] a vile or silly action, for no reason than because he knows he should not? Have we not a perpetual inclination [†¦] to violate that which i... ...985. Print Foerster, Norman. American Criticism: A Study in Literary Theory from Poe to the Present. New York: Russell & Russell, 1962. Print Ledger, Heath, perf. The Dark Knight. Warner Brothers Pictures, 2008. Film. Magistrale, Tony. Student Companion to Edgar Allen Poe. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001. Print. Ruiz, Don Miguel, and Janet Mills. The Voice of Knowledge. San Rafael: Amber-Allen Publishing, 2004. Print. Oliver Jr., Lawrence J. "Kinesthetic Imagery And Helplessness In Three Poe Tales." Studies In Short Fiction 20.2/3 (1983): 73. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. "Pluto, In Greek Religion And Mythology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Apr. 2012. Turvey, Malcolm. "Vertov: Between The Organism And The Machine." October 121 (2007): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 Apr. 2012.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Nature’s Work (Anaylsis of a Blizzard Under Blue Sky)

Houston seems to be an extremely talented writer. It comes as no surprise that â€Å"A Blizzard under Blue Sky† is a truly compelling short story (despite the fact that it only spans four pages). The reason Houston is able to draw readers in is because she opens by introducing the underlying topic of the piece, than puts the topic on the back burner to make room for a fascinating narrative, and in the end ties the theme and the tale together without making the connection seem forced.Based on her writing structure, the three key points of â€Å"A Blizzard under Blue Sky† seem to be identifying her problems/treating depression, persevering through a near death experience, and then realizing how the two are intertwined. Houston opens the story by detailing what has got her down in life: there are bills to pay, work to be done, and uncommitted men. The combination of this, and maybe even the haze of winter, made it so that â€Å"the machine that drives you is broken† (Houston 284).In the story, the doctor suggested medication to get her functioning correctly again, but Houston was adamant that she would never fix her depression with pills. She came up with an alternative solution: winter camping. From here, Houston drops basically all discussion about her depression. As a result, the reader almost forgets why she was going camping in the first place. Instead of dwelling, she immerses herself in nature hoping to get the same results as a prescription would have achieved artificially.One quote in particular perfectly describes her healing journey through nature, â€Å"when everything in your life is uncertain, there’s nothing quite like the clarity and the precision of fresh snow and blue sky† (Houston 284). Although her initial accounts of winter camping seem jovial and fun (she even mentions that the clarity and the sereneness feels like the fourth dimension). Houston’s experience quickly takes a turn for the worse. The sun creeping behind the mountains amplifies her lack of experience and her lack of supplies.Accordingly, she is faced with a fourteen hour sleepless night where her only concern is survival (for both her and her dogs). When the sun came up on House’s snow cave the next day, she describes a feeling of pure joy and relief based on the fact that she is alive. â€Å"For the first time in many months I was happy to see a day beginning† (Houston 287). She forgot about the bills, the man, and about the depression. Life and happiness because synonymous.The final key point of â€Å"A Blizzard under Blue Sky† is the first two key points combined: experiencing nature is an excellent way to deal with depression because it allows one to have â€Å"remembered about joy†. Houston asserts that nature forces you to step outside of your problems and embrace simplicity. Her story is tangible (maybe a little extreme) example of this, but it undoubtedly encourages the readers to use the natural world as a resource to facilitate â€Å"hopefulness†. I thought â€Å"A Blizzard under Blue Sky† was a wonderful story and achieved exactly what it intended to.It provoked happiness, maybe even amazement based on the fact that upon setting out Houston was initially skeptical about the healing power of the natural world, and in turn found how revolutionary an extreme experience can be. What’s most interesting is that Houston immediately turned down anti-depressants. Most people would be thrilled at the prospect of a pill filling the void in their lives. Pam Houston had a different view, â€Å"one of the things I love most about the natural world is the way it gives you what’s good for you even if you don’t know it at the time† (Houston 284).The important thing to note here is that she did not know how nature would heal her, but she had an unwavering faith that it would even in extremely harsh conditions. Prior to reading this story, my experiences with nature have not been all that rewarding; I have never had a life changing experience as a direct result of the natural world. Houston helped me to identify why I have never stumbled upon such an organic change before. While she experienced joy by letting go of everything but the prospect of life, I have always gone into the environment with expectations and goals. I intend to change this.In the terms of the big picture, this story ties directly with all her other writings I have read in my free time (Cowboys are my Weakness, Waltzing the Cat, Sight Hound). What we can gather from this story, is that nature is a powerful tool for contemplation, introspection, and healing. It is no coincidence that nature retreats are popular and powerful experiences. One can undoubtedly experience God, and do some meaningful soul searching while experiencing God’s creation first hand. I think that this piece of literature is getting at a very important point: emotio nal fluctuations are inevitable but they don’t have to be debilitating.In her story, Houston is going through a very difficult time, and her problems are very universal: love, work, and money. The natural journey that she consequently details prove that sorrow is curable (medication is not needed). In terms of my life, I intend to take the lessons taught by Houston and apply them to my life. With that being said, I don’t have the time to go camping on a regular basis, nor do I have the desire to, but I will seize any opportunity I can to expand my natural boundaries.This might include exploring a national park on a weekend instead of going to a movie, or it might mean vacationing to the wilderness of Utah instead of defaulting back to the same beaches I have always gone to. Whatever my wilderness emersion ends up being, rest assured that I will go out of my way to seize it. Maybe I will experience a life or death situation and come out with a new found conception of jo y, but even if I don’t, I will soak up whatever nature has to offer me.

Budgeting issues in criminal justice systems Essay

One of the reasons why jails still exist despite overcrowding is the budget allotted for the criminal justice administration. But the sudden rise in the number of prisoners posed a problem when it comes to budgeting. The article on policies and procedures of correctional facilities operated by the Multnomah County clearly shows that it has been experiencing financial shortage due to faulty budgeting. The article shows that it is very expensive to accommodate a prisoner, which costs $157/day in Multnomah County. This is expensive compared to the rate of jail systems in other counties. This was attributed to the labor contracts which resulted to raised labor costs, extraordinarily high medical costs which led to high cost of the overall system in jail, ineffective jail staffing pattern, abuse of sick leave, overtime and compensatory time and increase in the Sheriff’s budget. Aside from all of these, the Multnomah County has a very expensive juvenile detention facility. It costs $401/day to accommodate a juvenile. The article further shows that the Sheriff’s Office has practiced budgeting techniques which hid the management practices of the organization. This resulted to difficulty of finding out the different organization functions. Even the district attorney’s office has to seek the help of a financial analyst to make sense of the financial outline of the jail system. What the county requires is a program called â€Å"priority-based budgeting. Each department of the jail system must present program offers for the county commissioners to fund. However, some of these program offers are rejected. The Sheriff’s office has a total of 66 funding program offers that the county commission has approved. The priority-based budgeting was applied so that the commissioners can make an informed decision from an accurate financial picture of the different programs. This enabled the commissioners to be knowledgeable in whether funding or rejecting a particular program. The article concluded that the outside help of a financial consultant was necessary to analyze the Sheriff’s costs and budgets. It was noted that â€Å"it is a natural and understandable inclination of a government agency† to do the budgeting practices discussed in the article. The DA’s office thought that similar practices have been done by other government agencies in the county. It was suggested that the commission should collaborate more with the Sheriff. The county commissioners should understand the operations that they fund so that the problems might not occur again. The workgroup of the jail systems should focus on the Sheriff’s cost reporting and budgeting practices so that they can partake in any decisions to make. The commission should also found a work group that will inspect the jails and report frequently to the commissioners. This work group must consist of representatives from the law enforcement agencies in the county, the County Chair, the County Commissioner, the United States Attorney, the administrator for the federal facility at Sheridan, representatives from the business community, a representative from the medical community, the Department of Corrections, an independent financial analyst and the District Attorney. The law also requires that the county should include the state Department of Corrections in every operation of the local jails. However, whatever responsibilities the Department of Corrections is assigned by the law should not be carried out by the Sheriff’s Association. The article strongly advises that a healthy relationship must be established between the county Sheriff and the Board of Commissioners. Any solution to the problems must start from this perspective since all other problems stemmed from a breakdown to that relationship. The other article addressing budgeting issue is titled â€Å"Will part-time prison cut crime or costs? † by Nick Morrison. The article says that British Home Secretary David Blunkett proposed that some inmates be given freedom on weekends to relieve the growing population of prisoners in jails. Those inmates who are dangerous could be provided with electronic tags and they could stay out of jail for a month. They could also work during the week and spend the weekend in jail. Many questioned this proposal whether it is a way to fight the crimes or to cut costs, particularly Norman Brennan, director of the Victims of Crime Trust. He sees this proposal as the government’s admission to defeat in solving crimes, even though Blunkett promised to be tough on car-jackers and phone thieves. Brennan thinks that it has to do with money problems and not reducing crime why Blunkett allowed this kind of arrangement for the prisoners. It was hard for the government to spend a lot of money in keeping prisoners. Moreover, Brennan argued that it is more important to keep the prisoners in jails and out of the streets to protect the victims of crimes and the public, even though it is expensive to do so. Apparently, Blunkett’s proposal did not make this possible. Criminals were allowed on the loose, and they could strike again since they have freedom. With the growing population of prisoners in jails, Brennan says that the criminal justice system is no longer effective. A crisis in the criminal justice system has to appear before people do something to solve it. He recognizes that the problems will be harder to solve later on. Even more, there were less police officers on the beat to prevent crimes even though these crimes have been getting worse for many years now. The government also has not done something to reduce crime. He couldn’t see how Blunkett’s proposal could solve any of the problems. Brennan mentions that the country has more people inside prisons than any countries in Europe. He says it is so because there are more crimes here than anywhere else. The government, he adds, has resorted to different measures to solve the rising number of crimes. Sadly, none of these measures worked, and this showed a â€Å"disgraceful record on crime and law and order. † On the other hand, the Howard League for Penal Reform agreed with Blunkett’s proposal. The spokeswoman says that â€Å"anything †¦to reduce the prison population is a good thing. † She added that the programs set to keep the prisoners with a two or three months term away from their criminal behavior are not often available, that’s why they offend the second time after they are released. The article recommends that a community penalty is more effective as a form of punishment for the prisoners than sending them over to prison. The article quotes Brennan recommending that the government should deal with the crimes head on rather than making lots of promises and pledges that it cannot meet. People should also be aware of these problems and how serious they are so that they can be a part in solving them. Brennan is correct in saying that criminals should be sent to prison whether it is expensive or not. The most important thing to consider here is the protection of the public from these offenders. The government should look more into these problems because this is getting worse every year and it has bad records of crime. The government should also look into the budgeting systems of the federal and local governments. It should consider that budgeting systems can be a part of the ineffective services it offers to the public. Changes in budgeting systems should be an important part in reform. REFERENCES Morrison, Nick. (2002, February 05). Will part-time prison cut crime or costs? Newsquest (North East Ltd. , p. 8. Available at: http://yukon. actx. edu:2083/libweb/curriculum/do/document? set=topic&groupid=1&requestid=conquesttopic&resultid=48&ts=57673F035D3E975120F685A75E3514BA_1187860483640&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B76740234. The Multnomah County District Attorney’s Office. (2006). Independent review of policies and procedures of correctional facilities operated by the Multnomah County Sheriff’s Office. Available at: http://www. mcda. us/articles/GJ_CORRECTIONAL_FACILITIES_2006. pdf.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Management and Leadership Paper

Management and Leadership Paper Leadership and management are the two most confused terms in the corporate world. These are the two expressions used interchangeably in the corporate parlance. One is thought to be the replacement of the other. However, managers and leaders are two different spheres of organizational culture with one sphere, at some places, overlapping the other. These two together make the organizational culture and are responsible for its health. We will look at the various aspects of leadership and management with respect to the company GE (General Electric) and see how the two integrate while maintaining the disparity to make this organization number one enterprise and the best training school for future leaders and managers. Management Vs Leadership â€Å"Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things† The above quote by Peter F. Drucker sums up beautifully the essence of leadership and management. Management involves the tactical aspect of day to day running of a function. A manager gets the power to direct the subordinates by the virtue of the position being held. He/she typically carries out the responsibilities laid out by the organization for him/her. A manager is more of a problem solver and takes care of work areas relating to people management, time management, decision making etc. A leader on the other hand is more of a visionary. He has the ability to energize others and is self motivated and self driven. He sets the vision for his organization and has the power to influence the people to walk the path he has envisaged. However, there are places where a person needs to have both management and leadership skills. A manager in a team role would need leadership skills to influence his team members and get work done from them. Similarly, a leader needs to have management skills to be able to execute his vision. Hence, success of an organization would require people with a blend of both virtues. What role they play would depend on the percentage of each character in the individual. Leadership and management roles case study – GE GE has acquired its leadership legacy from Jack Welch, one of the greatest leaders of all times to come. He propagated a leadership style alien to the organizations of the time he took over GE’s reigns and changed the organization culture completely. Jack’s major success as a leader was due to his concept of â€Å"boundary less thinking†. This is how he grew an American manufacturing company into a services giant spread across 100 countries all across the globe (beginnersinvest. about. com ). One of the evidences of this â€Å"boundaryless† culture can be seen in Jack’s initiation of e-business. He connected the company directly to the suppliers as well as the customers electronically. This helped in quick information flow and instant resolution to the customer’s woes (answers. com). The managers here also followed this behavior as propagated by the leadership. This can be seen by the enthusiasm they took in taking up 6-sigma quality projects and delivered immense profits when Welch initiated the six sigma drive to reap benefits of the quality initiative. The managers enthusiastically followed their leader and undertook rigorous quality trainings, learned from each other’s experiences and further fired the six sigma drive. In fact, the benefits derived from this vision of Welch and the immense participation by the managers all across the businesses lead to a productivity gains of $320 million in 1997 and even more at around $750 million in 1998 (beginnersinvest. about. com ). Developing leaders was an important strategy of Welch as this always ensured a lineage of good leadership for the company. To fulfill this vision he had setup a leadership development school at Crotonville. He used this school as a means of encouraging â€Å"boudaryless† culture as well as a forum for â€Å"best practice sharing† as managers from various businesses would share their experiences both theoretical and practical and use the learning from these class room sessions to improve their respective businesses. However, some of the managers from â€Å"previous era† were not very enthusiastic about participation in these sessions. So, Welch started what he called â€Å"work-out† sessions. The managers would not be included in these discussions which were facilitated by academic people hired from outside the organization. After discussing the problems and solutions within the work-out group, the points were then discussed with the concerned managers there and then and they had to decide about whether to accept the solutions or give their view points against them and provide better options or to setup a plan to execute in phases (answers. com). Finally, these sessions became a way of resolving problems and involving employee participation and are still being used by managers to solve issues. Managers were the key messengers of the leadership to propagate and implement their messages. Managers were encouraged to come up with new ideas and were invited to Crotonville to proudly share ideas in front of Welch and the proficient executive team of GE (answers. com). Jack spread the concept of informality in the organization. He would send personal notes to people wherever possible. On of his managers once turned down a promotion because of his inability to shift from the location where he was presently working. Jack wrote him a personal note which went as follows: †We like you for a lot of reasons–one of them is that you are a very special person. You proved it again this morning. Good for you and your lucky family. Make Diamonds a great business and keep your priorities straight. † (beginnersinvest. about. com). Woodburn was immensely moved by this as he said †It showed me he cared about me not as a manager but as a person . That means a lot. ‘ (beginnersinvest. about. com). From the discussion above, we can understand how leadership differs from the management at GE. The leaders here are visionaries and the managers support their vision by following and propagating their ideas. Managers here are experts in their areas of operation while the leaders groom them to be future leaders. There were times, though, when the managers were not ready for the change their leader was propagating. The leaders have the capability of finding ways of getting their vision implemented which is evident from the work-out sessions idea of Welch. Recommendations for achieving a healthy work culture in an organization The growth curve and sustainability of an organization is highly influenced by its work culture. The key to everlasting success is to nurture the spirit of high business ethics in the organization. Where leaders and managers succumb to unethical dealings to spur growth, the organization is bound reach a fatal end soon. Thus, with undeterred focus on values, the leaders can create a transparent and healthy work environment. Another important strategy to achieve positive organizational culture is not to put pounding pressure on the people to perform. The undue pressure caused by Jack’s aggressive vision, lead people to resort to unethical means to deliver results. GE was at one time weighed down by scandals like the Kidder, Peabody & Co. bond-trading scam of the 90’s which resulted in bogus profits (beginnersinvest. about. com). Works Cited Kotelnikov, Vadim. 25 Lessons from Jack Welch. February 16, 2010. http://www. 1000ventures. com/business_guide/mgmt_new-model_25lessons-welch. html coach4growth. com. Leadership vs. Management: What are the Characteristics of a Leader and a Manager. 2007. February 16, 2010. http://www. coach4growth. com/good-leadership-skills/leadershipvmanagement. html beginnersinvest. about. com. How Jack Welch runs GE. May 28, 1998. February 16, 2010. http://beginnersinvest. about. com/gi/o. htm? zi=1/XJ/Ya=1=beginnersinvest=money=22=160_651_610_315=10=14=1=1=http%3A//www. businessweek. com/1998/23/b3581001. htm answers. com. Business Biographies: Jack Welch. 2010. February 16, 2010. http://www. answers. com/topic/jack-welch

Saturday, September 14, 2019

External factors affecting the fast food industry Essay

There are a number of external factors that have a deep impact on the sales and revenue earnings of the fast food chains. The changing demographics, shift in consumer taste and preference, eating habits, increase in cost of supplies and labor, economic condition of the geographical area in which the outlets are located – all these are some of the factors that affect the profitability of the business. Pricing strategy Families and individuals in the higher income group are most frequent visitors to the fast food restaurant. The disposable income plays an important role in determining consumerism in this sector. The prices on the menu card is not so important when it comes to catering to high disposable income group. But that restricts the customer base and may not be an ideal situation for the company. Today’s lifestyle has incorporated the fast food industry into its daily schedule. The Wendy’s or the McDonald’s have menu cards that suit the pocket of the low-income segment group too. Recently McDonald’s had introduced the Dollar Menu where all items cost $1 only. It was a runaway hit with the teenagers and youngsters. The variance in price has enabled McDonald’s to attract customers from all segments. In response to this pricing strategy Wendy’s and Burger King also introduced low priced meals to suit the pocket of all segments. Back Yard Burgers on the other hand have higher priced burgers at $3. 59. The premium priced menu card has not found acceptance with all consumer segments but the management does not want to compromise on the price of the products. It believes that in terms of quality of the food items the prices are reasonable. Back Yard Burgers wanted to distinguish itself from the cutthroat competition in the industry with premium quality products. The management strategy holds good in terms of quality and service but is it good enough for the survival of the company? A look at the sales figures for the past 3 years gives an indication of the sales and revenue trend. Consumer taste and preference The ever changing taste buds and increasing changes in lifestyle of the consumer has kept the fast food industry on their toes. Rising mobility, increasing number of women joining the workforce and hectic schedules leave very little time for a home cooked meal. The need for faster options in food and service was felt that led to the tremendous growth in the fast food industry. Quick serve burgers, pizzas and sandwiches accompanied by French fries and coke became the ideal meal for the average Americans. A diet rich in fat and sugar attracted the consumers in plenty. This resulted in obesity and a disease prone society. Diabetes, heart problems were some of the impacts that the cheesy diet had on the consumers. Lawsuits were filed against some major players in this field like McDonalds for the growing obesity among children and adolescents. This awakened the consumers of fast food and they realized the necessity for healthy alternatives. Health conscious consumers are more alert of what they eat and how it can affect them. The industry witnessed a radical change in consumer taste and preference. This brought about a sharp decline in revenues for the fast food industry. The fast food chain operators brought about a change in their strategy by adding salads, fruits, and soups to the menu cards. Low calorie burgers and sandwiches are offered in addition to the regular menu items. This offers the customers with choice to healthier meal options. Back Yard Burgers has also adapted to the changing consumer preference by adding nutritious salads and milkshakes to their menu card. Introduction of grilled charbroiled burgers that claim lesser fat and lower calories have attracted the consumer interest and taste. Healthier and tastier alternatives in food items prepared with fresh ingredients are the strategic point of Back Yard Burger’s customer service. This has not only earned it a good reputation among the loyal consumers who return for more of the great quality food and taste but has also strengthened its market position. But the fast food industry cannot ensure consumer loyalty since the interest of consumers is flickering. They always want to try something new and better variety of options in food that they consume. To serve the changing tastes of the consumer and maintain their interest the restaurant needs to constantly make changes to its menu card by adapting to their taste buds. Back Yard Burgers should keep this mind while formulating their operating strategy. With more fast food companies offering a wide range of products and services, Back Yard Burgers should also draft changes to its existing operating structure. One way of achieving this objective would be to combine the essential features of both fast food and full service restaurants. A menu card that features in a regular full service restaurant integrated with fast food service will work wonders for the company – boosting sales and revenue with an increasing consumer base. Event catering and home delivery service could also open newer avenues for the company.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Unique Aspects of Bristol University Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Unique Aspects of Bristol University - Essay Example A prerequisite to attend a business school with a programme as rigorous as Bristol’s is to be driven and motivated at an early age. Since my early teenage years, my uncle Marmon Aspadi, a graduate of the Bristol University, has encouraged me to apply. He must have seen in me the attributes necessary to succeed at the university. Through my study of A Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, I am extremely competent in the fields of mathematics and statistics, which are the core theoretical frameworks of an economics degree. Being an Indian citizen who has resided in the Middle East my entire life and witnessed firsthand the boom and bust of my hometown Dubai, my personal and academic backgrounds would be instrumental in contributing to the school’s immense cultural diversity. Furthermore, my living experiences abroad have only strengthened my understanding of the interconnectedness of the global economy and the role it plays in businesses throughout the world. Bristol provides the human landscape of internationalism that offers multidimensional perspectives needed to understand global trends and local realities. I believe that my broad international perspective would contribute to this environment. My interest in the field of business is genuinely innate and extremely strong. I concurrently believe in the importance of a well-rounded education. Bristol would provide the opportunity to challenge me through the interdisciplinary study offered at the College of Arts & Sciences. A dual degree across the two undergraduate schools is certainly what I would want to achieve if admitted to Bristol.  Ã‚  

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Identify both a federal and state (any state) legislative action that Essay

Identify both a federal and state (any state) legislative action that was created in response to the problems of domestic abuse - Essay Example Under the VAWA, all Federal domestic violence crimes are considered to be felonies and as such punishable with imprisonment based on the injury caused. Violation of the Gun Control Act also includes - possessing a firearm and/or ammunition after conviction of a qualifying misdemeanor crime of domestic violence. 18 U.S.C. Section 922(g)(9) The punishment meted out for this crime is a prison term which ranges from 5years to life imprisonment depending on the extent of injury caused by the defendant. The legislative process includes lodging a complaint, followed by an enquiry and investigation. The court of law summons the respective parties and after thoroughly examining the details of the case, passes its judgment. The judgment also includes the prison term and fines if any to be fulfilled by the abusive party. The Federal law also lends protection and support to the victims of domestic violence. Domestic violence has a bad effect on society and so the Federal Government has taken ste ps to curb and prevent it by funding nation-wide programs related to integration and migration. References Action Plan of the Federal Government Federal domestic Violence Laws

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Big Event Financial Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Big Event Financial Management - Essay Example With every FIFA football world cup event, host countries are required to have a minimum of eight highly accredited stadiums and two standby stadiums in case something happens to one or any of the eight reserved for the event. In the recently held FIFA world cup in Brazil, the nation was required to construct new additional stadiums to supplement the already existing fields. Similarly, the Olympic Games have become an extremely costly venture to undertake, especially for the host cities because of the infrastructural improvements that have to be done. Some of the improvements that have to be undertaken include the road networks, communication networks and accommodation facilities within the host cities. Because of the amount of work and funds needed to be invested to successfully host the Olympic events, organizers for the event in the past selected developed nations such as England and Italy and the United States. Out of the possible twenty-seven Summer Olympic Games held since its i nception, Mexico and Brazil are the only developing economies to have hosted the event outside Europe, the United States and developed nations of Asia. Cities such as Seoul and Barcelona used the event to overhaul their urban infrastructure completely. Such was the opportunity that organizers for the event in the two cities were looking out for, to create long lasting positive economic effects that would surely pay off the costs of laying out the infrastructure in the long run.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Critically appraise the key concepts and principles of the theory and Essay

Critically appraise the key concepts and principles of the theory and practice of the Person Centred approach - Essay Example Carl Rogers (a major contributor of the person centred model) emphasized the humanistic perspective as well as ensuring healing relationships with clients promote self-esteem, authenticity and actualization in their life, and help them to use their strengths (Seligman, 2006). Person-centred model has two primary goals, which are increased self-esteem and greater openness to experience. Attempts are made to facilitate related changes and seek to promote in clients the following: closer agreement between the clients idealized and actual selves; better self-understanding; lower levels of defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity; more positive and comfortable relationships with others; and an increased capacity to experience and express feelings at the moment they occur (Rogers, 1980). Person-centred model here means research that focuses on the person as a core of the study. The person then becomes the main conceptual unit and also often the main analytical unit. Person-centred model can be contrasted to variable-centred model where the focus is on the variable as the main conceptual and analytical unit. Variable- centred model is far more common but is not the topic of this article. For example training can be classified into variable-centred approach where the main focus is on the content of course which is being trained while coaching is person centred where the main focus is the person being trained not the content of the training. Person-centred model does not need to be quantitative and can in certain situations be carried out by case-oriented model and by using a qualitative model. Obviously, the study of the single individual, studied quantitatively using the technique, is in one way person-centred, but is not normally so according to the definition given above (since the focus is usually then on relationships between variables within the individual). The perspective given in this paper is of

Monday, September 9, 2019

The geographical history of Map making Research Paper

The geographical history of Map making - Research Paper Example This paper seeks to explore the science of map making with respect to its rich history culminating to modern maps. A map is a diagrammatic representation of a part of the world using from a bird’s point of view to provide guidance to the user on designated landmarks and geographical locations. In this respect, maps indicate the location of important elements in a specified part of the world such as political boundaries, natural resources, roads, topography, as well as economic activities. The science, study, and the art of making maps are descriptive of cartography, which involves examining the information conveyed, and its effective application. The importance of maps cannot be understated as they serve to provide guidance and direction to an area of interest. In this regard, exploration of new areas is easily facilitated by studying maps relevant for direction to various regions. This ensures safety of individuals involved, as they are aware of their surrounding keeping away from potential harm such as cliffs, raging waters, and hot deserts, which facilitates effective tourism. Similarly, geographical illustrations indicate flight patterns that ensure safety in air travel. Notable also is the role of maps in illustrating weather patterns, which is critical for individuals in the vicinity. To this effect, warning can be delivered effectively to residents in the event of eminent weather catastrophes. Maps also serve to safeguard infrastructure through effective planning and engineering. For instance, utility companies such as gas and electricity own maps indicating their infrastructure network, which is critical in the management of cities. This ensures that developers are aware of the network and thus work around it to preserve its integrity and avoid economic repercussions. The most remarkable role of maps, to both ancient civilisations and modern society, is demarcation of borders at national and international levels. This is critical to enhance peace and foster cohesion amongst different cultures in the world. Maps provide a unique opportunity to establish territorial boundaries that fundamental in defining jurisdiction with regard to legal systems and economic activities. International boundaries are often vocal in determining trade among nations, which serves to influence prices of various products such as oil in the world. In addition, maps are of economic importance owing to illustrated trade routes and cargo tracking, which provides essential information to various business parties. In essence, maps are important tools that facilitate understanding and navigation of the world around us. Depending on the application, various kinds of maps exist to illustrate different aspects of the world’s phenomenon. Physical maps indicate identifying physical features of the land with respect to terrain, topography (elevation), rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans. These find effective application among explorers in their navigation an d among policy makers as they plan development projects. Similarly, movement maps are highly specialised to indicate transport networks such as road maps in order to guide users on how to get a round. Distribution maps highlight the presence or absence of a desired interest in an area; for instance, the maps can be used to illustrate demographics or the availability of natural resources in a region. Political maps highlight national and int

Sunday, September 8, 2019

How Quantum Technology Will Improve Our Future Essay

How Quantum Technology Will Improve Our Future - Essay Example Hitherto, it has taken more than 250 years since the initial mega application of the concept. But presently, it has a far greater meaning as scientist have worked on numerous quantum theories and calculations to come up with many Quantum applications. Quantum technology has shaped human lives and will continue to modify or transform our lives in various ways that even some we may not be conscious of. Thesis: Quantum technology has impacted positively to our lives and will continue to improve or have greater positive impacts on our future lives. Quantum future in health According to Kaila, & Kaila (2010) with regard to the field of health, quantum technology provides humanity with health care via MRI. Quantum Technology and health have always had a noble correlation. Archeologists and historians point that surgeries initially took place around 3300BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization presently forming part of Pakistan and India. Although many theories linking quantum concept and healt h came and went, the advancement of health and its dependent on this technology never grow weaker. presently and even in future times, high level machines applies and will continue to apply photons and other quantum concepts to carry out medical tasks. For instance, equipment such as Stethoscope is highly applied in listening to one’s heart, while X-ray machines are used for determining any broken parts of our body in conjunction to many applications meant to make future human life better (Anwar, 2007). Quantum future in lighting bulbs Future application of the quantum technology in our lives is also seen in the lighting bulbs. With the era of the incandescent light bulb disappearing speedily, the holy grail of the lighting industry is to come up with a highly effective form of solid-form lighting that forms high superiority white light. Chemists have found out that white-light quantum dots are one of the few options of quantum technologies that produce pure white light. In f act, they predict that these ultra-small bright beads of cadmium selenide can change the blue-light formed by a Light Emitting Diode into a warm white light with a spectrum comparable to that of incandescent light. However, they have continue to warn that dense fluorescent tubes and majority of white light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) release a mixture of monochromatic colors, which fake white-light. Nearly a decade ago, when white-light quantum dots were invented accidentally in a Vanderbilt chemistry lab, chemists projected that it would be difficult to raise it to practical levels as its efficiency was extremely low for any commercial applications (Gerber, 2007). Presently however, Vanderbilt researchers have confirmed that they have successfully improved the fluorescent efficacy of these nanocrystals from an original level of 3 per cent to as high as forty five per cent. This implies that given the ever dynamic quantum applications, the future advancement of this application is guaran teed as the there is a possibility and room for boosting the efficiency of nanocrystals to above 45 percent. Hence, this efficiency of phosphors suggests that white light quantum dots would be practical in future for some superior lighting applications necessary for commercial purposes. The overall measure for efficiency of lighting devices is known as luminous efficiency and it determines the amount of visible light that a device can produce per unit of watt.

Saturday, September 7, 2019

HEALTH PROGRAM EVALUATION (Impact Evaluation and Accountability SLP 4) Research Paper

HEALTH PROGRAM EVALUATION (Impact Evaluation and Accountability SLP 4) - Research Paper Example Measureable outcomes benefit the executers of a project in that they provide a foundation for evaluating the objectives sought out in the first place versus the reality and true picture of the impact on the ground (Dreher. M et al 2006). For this case, measurable outcomes could encompass both the desired and the undesired effects of a project. Measurable outcomes could either be quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative outcomes are measured in terms of how many, how much et cetera while qualitative outcomes could be expressed in terms of how well, how reliable, how successful e.t.c. To find the number of children with neuro-developmental and related disabilitiesthat have been involved in court cases and in the process find the percentage of them that have been handled and concluded and those that are still pending in court. The percentage of the cases that have been concluded out of the total would provide the basis for knowing how fast and effective the justice system is in dealing with cases affecting such children. Another measurable outcome arising out of the objectives is the extent to which literature around children with neuro-development disabilities has been researched. How well researched is the information that is in the public domain and could there be cases of poorly researched material in the public domain. In this case what could be the percentage of the material? The third important factor to express as a measurable outcome is to identify how many members of the LEND group are knowledgeable in matters to do with children with neuro development disabilities. Again in this case one has to understand the highest level of knowledge that is present within the group and to what extent is this knowledge benefiting the group. Where applicable how many people should be trained in particular field by a given time. The last measurable outcome as relates to the objectives identified above is to know the extent of

Popular Culture and the Humanities Essay Example for Free

Popular Culture and the Humanities Essay I am writing this letter as a piece of a time capsule. I wish to capture for you a day in the life of the typical person in 2012. I have to say at this point that my day starts early. The house really starts buzzing around 6:00. Usually my husband is out to work at this time. Giovanni, my son, takes a shower getting ready for school. I start making coffee, and getting breakfast ready. Then we have breakfast together and soon he has to wait for the bus to bring him to school. His bus ride is about thirty from where we live. We chose a Catholic school for our children, Guilherme, 21 yrs old, graduate from Salesian High School and is current living in Pennsylvania in his last year in De Sales University and Giovanni 15 yrs old, attends Salesian High School. We want them to learn and practice a catholic faith. Next I have to get ready to go to work. It takes about ten minute driving to the school. Little Angels is private Preschool School; I teach a Pre-school class, which has 13 children. We have to use an electronic card to gain access to building. Nowadays you can’t be too careful with security. My schedule is from 9 to 5 every day, I have one hour lunch break, and I spend trying to juggle between homework, work and chores. I am currently a part time student at Kaplan University. I do not attend physical classes in a physical building. My classes are online. This means that I receive the information through the internet. The internet is the only way to communication nowadays. I have never met my professors face to face, but we correspond through discussion boards on the school’s web site. The Internet is named for interconnection of computer networks. It is a massive hardware combination of millions of personal, business, and governmental computers, all connected like roads and highways . Business, schools and even governments have come to depend on the internet as the main way to exchange information and even goods. No single person owns the Internet. No single government has authority over its operations. Some technical rules and hardware/software standards enforce how people plug into the Internet, but for the most part, the Internet is a free and open broadcast medium of hardware networking. Most of my banking, education and work are done online. Throughout a typical day, I will pay bills on the internet, access my class information on the internet and correspond with my sister and brother in Brazil through e-mail or Skype. At 5 when I came home usually my husband is waiting for me and we go for a two mile run. After I use the stove which cooks food by using electricity to heat pots or pans on the top of the stove or elements in the oven of the stove. This may not really represent our popular culture right now, since many people prefer to eat in restaurants, but we prefer to cook our own food since it healthier that way. That is pretty much what our days are like in the year 2012. We use a lot of technology, but family time and interaction with each are still the strengths of my day. We enjoy devices like cars, GPS, and dishwashers, refrigerators, air condition, cell phones, Ipads, which makes our lives so much easier. Even though we have made much medical advancement, we still have not found cure for Cancer, but we had good news this week, it looks like a regular sports bra, but it’s meant to help women detect early signs of breast cancer. Lifeline Biotechnologies has developed the First Warning System, or a smart bra, after years of research. The concept is called â€Å"thermography,† which relies on precisely detecting heat or abnormal heat signatures from tumors versus normal tissue. †Dr. Siavash Jabbari of Sharp Barnhart Cancer Center in Chula Vista, Calif., said the device is an â€Å"encouraging sign in the fight against cancer,† and it will give hope to the one in eight American women who develop the disease in their lifetime. The bra is still in a trial stage, but it’s showing good results. The company hopes the device will be available in the U.S. within the next two years. To us women this is good news, because mammograms are so painful and not so efficient. Times right now seem pretty uncertain. Unemployment is high, and it is difficult to find a job. My only wish is that my boys to grow up to be good people, to give back to society rather than take from it, and I want them to be able to take care of themselves and their future families. This is a year of a President Election, Barak Obama our President against Mitt Romney. Im personally going for Obama because hes actually trying and he is the best hope for our financial country recovery. Sincerely, Vivian Lopes Part 2: An Example of Morality and Decision Making Abortion and Pro Life Nowadays, in this world, there are a lot of problems that can cause great conflicts for human beings. One of the most complex problems is abortion. This is due to moral and ethical values which we all have. The majorities of us are Catholics and as small children were taught values that are based on the bible such as that famous phrase Thou shall not kill. This phrase relates to an abortion because abortion is the murder of a human being. My own personal beliefs of abortion come from my Christian faith I believe abortion is wrong and it is murder. Pro Life is great organization that is sponsored by Catholics as they try to prevent abortion and promote alternatives to abortion. Abortion is murder. We should support life and not end it. Part 3: My Definition of Happiness A smile, a laugh, a quick thoughts, going for a jogging in a cool summer day; chocolate; my son’s up to give me a hug because he hasnt seen you all day or in a long time, these are the little things, these are happiness these are all things that make me happy. Happiness is very simple to me. Having the necessities of life and knowing that my family is taken care of. Have shelter and food and clothes. I want my boys to have the best educational opportunities that they need and the healthcare that they need. I want to live debt free and try to teach that lifestyle to my Boys. Being materialistic does not make anyone happier. The things that are most important are relationships with my husband and children, our friends and extended family. These things will bring more happiness that any expensive vehicle will. I have come to this view seeing many people chase things that in the end leave them alone and unhappy. Just being happy with your life and accepting who you are and what you have will bring you happiness. Part 4- The day Osama bin Laden had been killed On May 1, 2011, President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed in a terrorist compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. In an 8-month plan enacted by the president, and led by CIA director Leon Panetta and American special forces, Osama was shot several times. His body was taken as evidence of his death, and DNA tests revealed that the body was, in fact, his. For over two decades, bin Laden has been al Qaedas leader and symbol and has continued to plot attacks against our country and our friends and our allies, President Obama said in a late-night address to the nation on the eve of Osamas death. The death of bin Laden marks the most significant achievement to date in our nations effort to defeat Al Qaeda. He added that his demise should be welcomed by all who believe in peace and human dignity ( Part 5: The Twin Towers I believe that the Twin Towers of the World Trade should be included because they represent big change in our society. When the Towers were attacked on September 11, 2001, many people realized that the world not completely favorable of the American lifestyle. We realized that there are people out there like to hurt and kill for no reason, or just try to take our freedom .Every day we live with the reality of being at war. It made us all step back and think about our national security and how to be safer. The sense of community that happened after that attack still brings tears to my eyes. Over 3,000 people died in those attacks that were coordinated by al-Qaeda. After twelve years later, we’re about to finish building the first green building in Manhattan. It consists of four main things that make it green. Those are; energy efficiency, water efficiency, good indoor air quality, and sustainable materials. It runs on fuel cells which are powered by natural gas. This is probably standard in your world; however, this is the first building that has this ground breaking technology. It is supposed to be made from materials that make it near impossible to destroy. I remember watching a documentary where they showed how they were going to build it. I remember them saying the stairwells are wider with oxygen being pumped into the air and automatic safety features installed for emergencies. It is an impressive building that symbolizes us still stand as one nation under God; and also represents all the innocent’s lives lost for no reason. Part 6: Taylor Swift – Long Live song Taylor Swift at just the age of twenty, She is simply a young, brilliant, and stunning singer. She has released 3 albums all of which have had hit singles. Though it was only 4 years from her debut to her most recent album Speak Now, her music shows how much she has grown as a person and as a singer ; with each song written so beautifully, it is amazing to believe it was written by a twenty year old. This is one of my favorite songs on the album. It means a lot to me, looking back at my life and remembering how it felt and what the journey was to get here. It is deep and profound and makes me happy inside can explain. Part 7: Shrek Fairy tales dont always follow the same boring pattern; beautiful princess falls in love with her prince charming and they live happily ever after. The movie Shrek, an ogre and a beautiful princess fall in love, though this beautiful princess has a secret; her secret is that by day she is a beautiful princess, and by night she’s an ogre. Shrek thought she was beautiful as a human and as an ogre; this hidden message is shown as beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Also in the movie, another implied message is that people are prejudice to stereotypes. Though, once you truly know someone, it can be really wonderful and life changing. Though this fairy tale isnt like the average fairy tale, it still has implied and hidden messages. Shrek displays many of these, each were carefully thought out and written to match the others perfectly. Even though Princess Fiona didnt end up beautiful in the way she thought, Shrek still thought she was beautiful as an ogre. Being beautiful to someone can mean more than being beautiful to everyone. Donkey may have been very annoying in the beginning, but Shrek learned that he was a true friend, even when he judged him from the beginning Donkey reminded Shrek who he loved and wanted, which changed his life forever. Friendships can last forever, and can have many impacts on a person. Part 8: The I Pad I chose the I Pad (portable computer), to leave in my time capsule. This electronic device is where you store all of your information. Im sure you have something much more advanced, but this was quite the item back in my day. It is portable and most people use them when they are in school, working, or to read. This is the technology of the 21st century; the I Pad is just one of the devices owned by Apple. They are also responsible for bringing us the iPod for music, the iPhone cellular device of our century and the Mac Book (laptop). They are the most expensive devices, but they are very impressive machines. This company (Apple) owns the electronics of our time. References: Net for beginners References: Retrieved from Fox news References: Retrieved from breast-cancer/#ixzz29xjyPhGM Bibliography Shrek (2001) References: Retrieved from2012/10/18 Memorable (1990) Shrek (2001) Memorable Biography References: Retrieved from, 2012/10/18 Online Available at: You tube; References: Retrieved from, 2012/10/18 Apple; References: Retrieved from, 2012/10/18